GLOBAL WARMING CURRICULUM
                Kate Rogers Gessert, 541-935-8843, katerg@igc.org
        Please call or e-mail me if you would like to share ideas about
        global warming and other environmental civics curriculum.

 
I teach at Lane Community College Downtown Center in the evening program. My students are adults, mostly in their twenties and thirties, mostly from Mexico and other American countries. (They have taught me to say America, it's all America, not North, South, and Central America. This seems right.) My students are in Level 6, SPL 7 and 8.  In fall 2006, there were 16 students in my Combined Skills class, which meets two nights a week for 2 1/2 hours. In November we began five weeks of civics curriculum focused on global warming.

OCTOBER 30: In class we discussed what global warming is, and students began with this homework:
        PLEASE ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS AND WE'LL DISCUSS THEM IN CLASS. WE WILL ALSO BE WATCHING A MOVIE ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING.

Global warming comes from carbon and other greenhouse gases that are released into the atmosphere above the earth. These gases stay in the atmosphere and trap heat, so they make the earth and its oceans warmer.

1. Which things do you think are causes of global warming?
       a. Driving cars
b. Riding buses
c. Cows
d. Refrigerators
        e. Garbage that goes the landfill
       f. Eating food from California
  g. All of those things

2. What are ways to help decrease global warming?
a. Wear a sweater and keep your house cooler in winter.
b. Walk to work.
        c. Share rides.
d. Eat less meat.
       e. Dry your clothes on a wash line.
     f. Watch less TV.
        g. Recycle.
        h. All of those things

3. What other things can you think of that might be causes of global warming?
(List three or more.)

4. What other things can you think of that might help decrease global warming?
(List three or more.)

NOVEMBER 1

1. In class we talked about the homework questions. The students were surprised that some things (like eating meat) could be connected with global warming, and shared their suggestions for cutting global warming.
   
2. Together with the Level 4 and 5 classes, we watched excerpts from Al Gore's movie, "An Inconvenient Truth."

2. After the movie, when the other two classes had gone back to their own rooms, we talked for awhile about how people felt about what they had seen, and about how much
of global warming comes from different things that we do.
        We discussed the U.S. role in carbon emissions, that our country is 5% of the world's population  and uses 20% of the world's resources and 25% of global oil.
  We talked about the difference in environmental footprints of different people and countries, and how when immigrants come to the U.S., their footprints change. I showed a transparency of different countries' footprints. (www.myfootprint.org)
      I showed a transparency with a pie chart of different everyday activities that contribute to global warming. Transportation is 40% nationwide and somewhat higher in Oregon, because our state has less public transportation and more SUVs and light trucks.
   I presented to the students the idea of recording our transportation and trying to cut it, in a backwards carbon race with students in other classes, to see which class could save the most carbon. We would give prizes for the class that does the best.
     I explained that first we would all record our transportation for a week, without starting the competition yet, and the second week the competition would begin. On Monday we would go to the computer lab and research what we could do to reduce carbon emissions that come from transportation.
      We talked about students' current transportation patterns: how many drive every day? walk? bus? bike?
Why is it important to save gas?
How much carbon does gas add to atmosphere?
Each 20 miles per gallon average fuel efficiency, each mile we drive adds about one pound of carbon to the atmosphere.
We talked about "passenger miles" and how many people are in a car.
We looked together at a transparency of the chart they would fill in for homework. The chart is below.





                                               name______________________

                              ONE WEEK'S TRANSPORTATION

                          Thursday  Friday  Saturday  Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday

driving (miles)*
work
LCC
kids to school
shop
other

bus (miles)
work
LCC
shop
other

bike (miles)
where


walk (miles)
where


______________________________________________________________

total miles for the week: driving
                              bus
                             bike
                            walk
______________________________________________________________

gallons of gas
you used in a week
If possible, try to figure what part of the gas you used, not everyone who used the car.
*Note: If one or more other people are in the same car, divide the miles by the number of people. For example, if you and a friend drive 6 miles to work together, count this as 3 miles for you. (It's 3 miles for your friend, too, but you don't count those miles.)

NOVEMBER 6

1. We talked about the transportation charts and how they were coming.
What have you noticed so far?    
What do you think you can do next week to save gas?
Students talked about how it was hard to take the bus because the buses leave 10 or 20 minutes before our classes end, with no buses for another hour, so it's either the last part of class or miss the bus. We talked about asking the bus company of it could change the schedule, because LCC student mightbe a lot of the people on these evening buses.

2. Students worked with partners in the computer lab to find ways to save gas at internet sites. They used this worksheet:


                                             partners _______________________

                        TRANSPORTATION WORKSHEET

                   DECREASING GLOBAL WARMING BY USING LESS GAS

Internet suggestions:
* web search - what are good key words for searching?
* web sites: www.climatecrisis.net,
climatesolutions.org, environmentaldefense.org,
oeconline.org, portlandonline.com, www.fueleconomy.gov
, ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/fuel_economy/practical-driving-tips.html

   1. Websites we visited:



2. Ideas we found for using less gas:





   3. Other ways to save gas that we have tried or we think would be helpful:




All three classes, Level 4, 5, and 6, were doing this activity at different times, and I gave these notes to the other teachers:

Here are notes for us to help students find their way through the websites:

* web sites: www.climatecrisis.net  Take Action    While on the Move

 
climatesolutions.org     Practical Solutions    12 Transportation Choices

 environmentaldefense.org   Fight Global Warming   What You Can Do: On the Road
                                  Save Fuel

oeconline.org    Climate and Transportation    Drive Green Save Green   Eco-tips
                 Go Farther on a Gallon + Maintain Your Car
www.fueleconomy.gov      Gas Mileage Tips   Driving More Efficiently and others

 ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/fuel_economy/practical-driving-tips.html

NOVEMBER 8

1. I gathered the ideas that students had found on the websites into a class document and we read it together in class. (below)

2. Byrna Livingston from Climate Crisis Working Group, a local citizen group, visited our three classes. She and the students talked about the ways to save transportation carbon that they had found on the internet and other ways that are possible. (handouts below)

3. Students handed in their first transportation charts and got new ones. We talked about ways they could try saving carbon now that the race was beginning.
        How may gallons of gas does a car use compared to a bus? How many people are in the car?
        Gas mileage per passenger mile
 
        We talked about gas prices. I added government notes: that the Bush administration was saying to drive less but also opposing laws for alternative energy and greater fuel efficiency. We talked about the Kyoto accord, and that the cities of Eugene, Portland,  and 170 others have agreed to meet or exceed Kyoto accord standards, that Governor Kulongoski supports a law for auto fuel efficiency in Oregon.
        We also talked about the effects of global warming on Oregon: that it has been 5 degrees warmer than average in the last 20 years, with 7 degrees higher average summer temperatures. and that we have had 7 years of below-normal rain.  We brainstormed what the effects of this would be on forests, oceans, salmon, and agriculture.

 
             TRANSPORTATION: SAVING CARBON EMISSIONS
                  INTERNET RESEARCH BY DOLORES, IGOR, JOSE,
                JOSEFINA, MAGDALENO, MARIA, MAURILIO,
                                 NOE, NOEMI, AND T.K.

      DRIVING MORE EFFICIENTLY
1. Aggressive driving is speeding and fast acceleration and braking. It can lower your gas mileage by 33% at highway speeds and by 5% in town. Sensible driving is also safer!
2. Pay attention to the speed limit.
3. Travel light! Remove extra weight from your car. Removing 100 pounds of weight can save 2% of gas.
4. Use overdrive gear if you have it.
5. Use cruise control when you can.
6. Try to combine errands that you do in your car.
7. Travel outside of rush hours if you can.
8. Avoid excessive idling.

  CAR MAINTENANCE
1. Keep your car in shape.
2. Inflate tires properly and often.
3. Replace air filters regularly.
4. Fixing a faulty maintenance problem, such as a faulty oxygen sensor, can improve mileage by up to 40%.

SOLUTIONS
1. Drive less! Every gallon of gas you use adds 20 pounds of carbon to the atmosphere.
2. Leave your car at home at least two days a week.
3. Buy a fuel-efficient car.
4. Walk.
5. Bike.
6. Take the bus.
7. Rideshare = carpool.
8. Support Clean Car Standards that reduce automobile emissions.
9. Tell your family and friends that transportation is the number one cause of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.


        WEBSITES: www.fueleconomy.org, climatesolutions.org, eoconline.org,                             fueleconomy.gov, cool-it.us, ucsusa.org, environment.about.com/od/globalwarming,                fordboldmoves.com, sierraclub.org/globalwarming/gas_savers/


                  THINGS TO DO TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS
                            TRANSPORTATION:  YOUR CAR
                       by Cary Thompson, Climate Crisis Working Group

HOW YOU DRIVE
1. When driving, avoid aggressive driving; hard acceleration and hard braking can increase fuel consumption by up to 40%.  
2. In a standard shift vehicle, we can save fuel by getting into the highest gear possible, as soon as possible. 
3. Drive steadily at posted speed limits.  Increasing your highway cruising from 55 mph to 75 mph can raise the fuel consumption by as much as 20%. 
4. Avoid idling when possible.  When you are stopped for more than 30 seconds, turn off the motor if it is safe to do so.  It saves more gas to start the motor again than to idle for even a short period of time.
4. When starting a car in the winter, warm up the engine for no more than 30 seconds before driving away. 
5. Using the car air conditioner can increase fuel consumption by more than 20%. 
6. Use cruise control when possible on freeways.
7. Turn off wipers, radio, heater, and lights before turning off the car's engine. It uses more gas to restart the engine with these things on.
8. Do what you can to reduce drag in your car. Remove things on roof racks when not needed, and keep windows rolled up on the highway. 
9. Remove unnecessary weight from the trunk or truck bed. Every 100 pounds of weight can increase fuel consumption by 2%.
10. To minimize the evaporation of gasoline, have the tank filled in the mornings or evenings when the temperature is cooler. 
11. Avoid topping off the gas tank, as more vapors escape. 
12. Park in the shade to minimize gasoline evaporation.
13. Put on your seat belt before you start the car.
14. Go inside fast-food restaurants instead of waiting in line in your car.

CAR MAINTENANCE
13. Get the car tuned.  A badly tuned car can use up to 50% more fuel and produces up to 50% more emissions than one that is properly tuned.
14. Change the car's air filter regularly.  Dirty or clogged air filters can cause up to 10% increase in fuel consumption.  See the owners' manual for replacement schedule
15. Change the oil regularly, every 3-5000 miles. Try to use the lowest viscosity oil recommended for the vehicle, as higher viscosity oils use more gas.
16.  Make sure tires are properly inflated.  Under-inflated tires can increase fuel consumption by as much as 6%. Check inside door panel of the car for inflation recommendations.

     OTHER THINGS YOU CAN DO TO SAVE VEHICLE EMISSIONS
                   by Cary Thompson, Climate Crisis Working Group

1. The best thing you can do in terms of transportation area is to not own a car at all!  Owning a car is also very expensive.  Studies show that the average vehicle costs
$500-700 per month.
2. ***Remember that we can reduce our personal emissions output when we live closer to where we work.
3.  Choose to ride the bus.  LTD has a large network, and will carry bicycles on the bus for no extra charge. You can take the bus way up the McKenize River to the forest!
4. Amtrak (the train to Salem, Portland, etc.) is very comfortable, with a snack bar, movies, and beautiful scenery to look at. However, it often runs late.
5.  When driving, try to car pool.  Join a local car sharing web where they match up drivers and riders.  Check out  www.eRideShare.com
6.  When planning to go out, take a moment to evaluate the trip:  do I really need the car for this trip?  Can I walk or bike?  Pre-plan the trip to take the shortest, most direct routes.  Approximately 50% of all errand trips are within three miles of home. 
7.  Make friends with the neighbors and share a neighborhood truck or auto to use for projects as needed.
8.  Look up the website  www.carboncounter.org  and calculate your personal carbon consumption.  Learn about how to offset  personal consumption by supporting organizations seeking to achieve a carbon balance, to become "carbon neutral". 
9.  As a car owner,  choose the best mile-per-gallon vehicle available. 
10. Look into purchasing an electric hybrid vehicle, available on today's market.  
11. Research owning a vehicle that can run on alternative fuels.  Many current vehicles are designed to run on ethanol which emits less carbon dioxide and less other pollutants.
12.  Check out diesel vehicles that get better mileage per gallon.  The federal government has now mandated a cleaner burning diesel gasoline. Biodiesel fuels that can be produced locally from vegetable and other recycled oils are an alternative.  In Eugene,  fill up a diesel or standard engine at the new Alternative Fuels at SeQuential Biofuels filling station near Lane Community College 30th Avenue Campus.
13.  Purchase 100% electric vehicles in Oregon from our local manufacturers, such as Zap or Gizmo.  Or get a conversion kit for a Toyota Prius Hybrid to make it almost totally electric for most uses.
14.  Learn about these things and then teach them to a neighbor. Educate friends and children to look forward to a more sustainable future.


 


            
WEEKS 1 AND 2, OCTOBER 30 - NOVEMBER 8, REFLECTIONS SO FAR:

I think this curriculum is very valuable to do. With one to two million immigrants coming to the U.S. every year, it is important that they participate in environmental education and not get all their messages about how to live well in the U.S. from TV!
   Most of it is going well, but there are some problems. Not everyone is doing well with the transportation chart. It's hard to remember to take notes on it. I'm having trouble remembering myself. And miles per gallon seem to vary wildly. >From what students are recording, some of them are getting amazingly low gas mileage, but I know some of them drive old cars and big shiny trucks.
        Another problem is that we're collecting so much information about saving carbon emissions through transportation that it is hard to know where to start. I don't know if I would do both the internet search and a visitor another time, unless the quantity of ideas was trimmed down. I've been trying to talk with them about what are the easiest, most immediate ways we can save, but still the sheer bulk of information may not be helpful.


NOVEMBER 13

1. I showed them the transparency of the first week's survey (below) and we talked about it and how the second week is going.
What ideas have they tried for saving gas?
Staying home predominated.

2. I had talked to the bus company and they had suggested a survey of student bus use, so I made the survey (below) with the bus company's input, one of my students translated it into Spanish for the lower level students, and some of my students went in pairs to other levels of classes, from Pre-beginning to Level 5, to explain and hand out the survey. Here are the directions I gave these students:

       INSTRUCTIONS FOR TAKING THE BUS SURVEY TO OTHER CLASSES
                                Thank you for helping with this!

1. Ask the teacher of the class whether you should explain in Spanish or in English. The teacher will try to help the students who don't speak Spanish.

2. Explain to the class;
Many ESL students have to leave classes early to take the bus home from L.C.C. The top three levels of ESL classes have been studying ways of using less gasoline to reduce global warming, and  we think it would be good if more students could take the bus. It would be easier to do this if the buses were a few minutes later, so everybody could stay till the end of class. The bus company, Lane Transit Company, is interested in this idea, and they want us to find out how many ESL students take the bus now, and how many would take the bus if it left a little later and you could stay until the end of classes.

3. Give the survey paper to the students. Read them the introduction ("Dear students...") Tell them to read the questions and ask you if there is anything they don't understand.

4. Stay in the classroom while the students fill out the surveys. Collect all the surveys and bring them back to your teacher. Thank you!


NOVEMBER 13 CONTINUED

3. Students did a review exercise on ways of driving that save gas (below) and we corrected it together.



CLASS TRANSPORTATION SURVEY

LEVEL 6, NOVEMBER 2 - 8, 2006

10 PEOPLE ANSWERING

TOTAL DRIVING FOR ONE WEEK: 1,551 MILES
MILES EACH PERSON DROVE RANGED FROM 34.5 TO 380.

AT AVERAGE 20 MPG FUEL EFFICIENCY, OUR CLASS ADDED APPROXIMATELY 1,500 POUNDS OR 3/4 TON OF GREENHOUSE GASES TO THE ATMOSPHERE IN ONE WEEK.

AVERAGE: 150 MILES PER PERSON, 150 POUNDS OF GREENHOUSE GASES

OF THE 1,551 MILES,
                          901 WERE TO AND FROM WORK
                              167 WERE TO AND FROM L.C.C.
                              92 WERE SHOPPING
                                60 WERE TRANSPORTING KIDS.

ALL TOGETHER, WE ALSO RODE THE BUS A TOTAL OF 2. 5 MILES, BIKED 1 MILE, AND WALKED 38 MILES.


                    BUS SURVEY * ENCUESTA DEL AUTOBUS

Dear students,
     We are planning to write a letter to Lane Transit District, asking them to change the schedule and make evening buses later so that ESL students can stay until the end of their classes. Please help us by filling out this survey. Circle the appropriate answers. Thank you!

Queridos estudiantes,
    Estmos planeando escribir una carta a los autobuses de transporte de la ciudad (LTD.) Queremos preguntarles si ellos pueden cambiar el horario de los autobuses un poco mas tarde para que los estudiantes de Ingles como segundo idioma (ESL) puedan quedarse hasta el final de la clase. Por favor ayudenos a llenar esta encuesta. Escoge la respuesta apropiada. Gracias!

1. I take the bus to L.C.C.
        Yo tomo el autobus al colegio de la comunidad (L.C.C.)

   I take the bus home from L.C.C. after class.
   Yo tomo el autobus a casa desde LC.C. despues de clases.

   I do not take the bus for L.C.C. classes.
    Yo no tomo el autobus para venir a la escuela.

2. The number of my bus route is
  El numero de ruta del autobus que tomo es

3. I take the bus for L.C.C. classes on these days:
    Yo tomo el autobus para venir a L.C.C. en

       Monday          Tuesday         Wednesday               Thursday
        Lunes                   Martes          Miercoles               Jueves

4. On my bus going home, how many of the passengers are usually E.S.L. students?
  De regreso a casa. cuantos pasajeros son estudiantes de ingles en el autobus?

   about 25%                       50%                     75%                     more than 75%  
        cerca de 25%            50%                     75%                     mas de 75%

5. If the bus schedule changed so I could stay until the end of class, I would take the bus home from L.C.C. in the future.
   Si el horario de los autobuses cambiara yo podria quedarme hasta el final de la clase, yo tomare el autobus de regreso a casa despues mi clase en el futuro.

        Yes                          No                 Maybe
   Si                           No         Possiblemente
              
REVIEW EXERCISE FOR NOVEMBER 13

WHAT ARE THE BEST WAYS TO SAVE GAS?


1. What is the best speed to drive to get maximum gas mileage?

     a) 30 - 40 miles an hour
        b) 40 - 60 m.p.h.
       c) over 60 m.p.h.

2. Which of these other things help improve gas mileage?

       a) Drive gently.  Speed up and slow down slowly and smoothly.
   b) Speed up and slow down quickly.
      c) Keep the tires full of air.
  d) Change the air filters as soon as they are dirty.
    e) Do many errands in one trip in the car.
      f) Use the air conditioner as little as possible,
       g) Use the heater as little as possible.
        h) Take heavy things out of the car.
    i) Keep the windows closed.
     j) Keep the windows open.
       k) Carry packages on top of the car.
    l) Share rides with other people.
              

NOVEMBER 20
1. We started talking about other ways we could save energy and cut carbon emissions through what we do in our homes. Another member of Climate Crisis Working Group visited and gave a talk/demonstration with drying racks, compact fluorescent bulbs, etc. for Levels 4 - 6 in turn. (Handouts below) Students discussed these ideas, noticing similarities between what was being suggested and what many of them used to do in their home countries.
2. Students finished handing in their transportation charts for the second week. Some of them said they hadn't saved anything or their miles traveled in cars had increased. One student went on a trip to California with her church. Another was sick and saved a lot of miles that way. Another got her friends to give her rides.
       I was worried about what this was going to be like when I added it all up! It would be better to keep the race going for another week, but because of other things the students have to do in class time at the end of the term, we teachers we should end it now so we have time for an ending ceremony. We also decided that we should give prizes for those who participated, not the class that won the race.

EVERYDAY WAYS TO CHILL GLOBAL WARMING
from Climate Crisis Working Group

CUTTING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM OUR HOMES
The top four greenhouse gas emitters in our homes are space heating and cooling, 41%, appliances, 36%, water heating, 14%, and lighting, 8%.
* IDEAS FOR CONSERVING HEAT
Heat from natural gas emits less greenhouse gas than heat from electric utility   sources.
Heat pumps can increase heating efficiency up to 50%.
Make sure your house is well-insulated.
Change furnace filters frequently to save 350 pounds of carbon emissions a year.   
You'll save 500 pounds of carbon emissions a year for every degree you lower your thermostat.
Turn the thermostat down 10 degrees at night or when you are away during the day.
Keep any parts of your house that aren't being used at lower temperatures, around 50      degrees.
Turn your house heat on late in autumn, so you can get used to to cooler temperatures.
To stay warm indoors, wear a sweater, curl up under a throw, and sip hot drinks. 
At night, pile on the blankets and cuddle close to your partner and/or pets.  
Bring extra heat into one frequently-used room to warm someone who feels the cold.      Consider moving to a smaller home.
     
* KEEPING COOL IN OREGON SUMMERS       
Ceiling fans that move the air make us feel cooler.    
Heat pumps cool air in summer.
Whole house fans and window fans pull cool air into houses at night.
Trees, overhangs, trellises, and porches, especially on east and west sides of houses, can give shade from morning and baking afternoon sun.
A grape trellis on the south wall of a house makes a cool, shady outdoor room. In fall, you can cut back the grape vines so low-angled sun from   the south can warm and light the house all winter.
A shady outdoor place a little ways out in your garden, with a chair or two beneath a tree or trellis, is a cool, pleasant alternative to being in a warm house. And each tree you plant will absorb a ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.    
* HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES
Energy Star appliances are great, but since a good deal of carbon is emitted in their     manufacture, it's best to use the appliances you have as long as they work well, and THEN       get new ones that are more energy-efficient. The top four appliances in terms of a home's greenhouse gas emissions are refrigerators, freezers, clothes dryers, and TVs.

* REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS
In most homes, refrigerators and stand-alone freezers use by far the most energy.
Refrigerators and freezers work much more efficiently if the coils on their backs and      underneath are dusted or vacuumed twice a year.
Unplug older energy-guzzling refrigerators and/or freezers in garages.
          
* ALTERNATIVES TO CLOTHES DRYERS
laundry racks: from Down to Earth and Bed, Bath and Beyond
clothes lines: from Down to Earth and Plow and Hearth (mail order)

* WATER HEATING
After rebates and tax credits, solar water heaters don't cost much. They have little maintenance. They heat water even in cold, cloudy weather. Because they are             simple, they take less carbon emissions to manufacture than many other energy-          saving technologies.
Wrap your hot water tank in an insulating jacket to save half a ton of CO2 a year.  Keep the hot water temperature at 120 to 130 degrees and save another 550 pounds.
Reduce hot water use.
* LIGHTING
A compact fluorescent bulb can create the same amount of light with a much smaller      amount of watts than an incandescent bulb because far less of the CFL's energy is               burned away as heat. CFLs cost more but they save carbon emissions - up to 300          pounds a year by substituting just one CFL for an incandescent bulb.
However, most CFLs cannot be used in enclosed fixtures.
They cannot be used on dimmer switches unless you're careful to keep them undimmed.
They cannot be used outdoors unless they are special ones for damp places.
New kinds of CFLs are being produced that are adapted to different situations.
It's a good idea to buy Energy Star CFLs.
CFLs contain mercury and should be recycled at lighting stores.

                   EVERYDAY WAYS TO CHILL GLOBAL WARMING 2
                              from Climate Crisis Working Group
                     CUTTING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM FOOD

* Grow your own!
        edible landscaping
* Eat food in season and buy as much as you can locally:
      farms and farmers' markets    
        participation in CSA farms
      at grocery stores like Kiva and Sundance that sell local produce.      
* Consider "food miles," and reserve foods that travel long distances for occasional    treats.
* Organic food is important in a global warming sense because organic soils capture and  store carbon dioxide at much higher levels than soils on conventional farms. Also,              chemical fertilizers release greenhouse gases during their manufacture and use.
* Eating less meat cuts down on greenhouse-gas emissions.
Each year five billion tons of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, are emitted by               the multiple stomachs of the world's cows.
Chickens and dairy products represent the least but still significant amounts of      methane.
* The more we can build our meals around local, organically grown plants, the better for earth's atmosphere.

                            PATTERNS OF CONSUMING
* An important way we can cut back on carbon emissions is to buy less of everything.
* A big merry Christmas can add up to half a ton of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. * A wonderful present for kids and adults: a solar/wind-up radio (from Greater Goods.)
* You can calculate your carbon footprint at sites like carboncounter.org, and buy               carbon offsets for home and transport at www.climatetrust.org, greentagsusa.org, etc.

                         PROTECT THE GREAT AERIAL OCEAN!
  




NOVEMBER 22

1. I made an illustrated wall chart of suggestions the students had made about ways to cut carbon emissions. We talked about the first homework they had done and everything they had learned.

2. I showed students the transportation transparency for our second week (below) and told them we had won the carbon race, and we were going to have a ceremony where everyone who had participated would get prizes. By now there were only Levels 5 and 6 in the race. Level 4 was too busy with other work.
 
3. I asked them to write pledges for the ceremony about what they would like to promise to do to reduce carbon emissions. The pledge forms had a colored illustration of the earth on them and the words: "To protect the atmosphere and all life on earth, I promise that I will..." with a place for a signature and date.
       
4. At the ceremony, Levels 5 and 6 met together and each student who had participated in the backwards carbon race received a compact fluorescent light bulb (directions below.) Students who had saved carbon emissions also got locally made truffles. All the students from both classes read their pledges aloud and we put them up on the wall.


NOVEMBER 27

1. Students worked together to write a letter to the bus company (below) that would accompany the completed survey results.

2. I also assigned the following for part of students' homework for November 29:

      Think about the questions below. You will write about these questions in class on Wednesday. They are important because part of your class grade for civics will come from this writing. If you like, make notes and bring them to class.

        CHOOSE ONLY ONE PAIR OF QUESTIONS.
        What have you learned about global warming that you especially remember? How will this affect your life?
        OR
      What have you learned in this class about how to talk about what concerns you?
  How can you use this in your life? What did you learn from Ib's visit?
  [We had also been studying ways to talk in English about controversial subjects.]

 

 

        CUTTING BACK ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

WEEK 1: 10 PEOPLE PARTICIPATING
TOTAL DRIVING FOR ONE WEEK: 1551 MILES
MILES EACH PERSON DROVE RANGED FROM 34.5 TO 380.

AT AVERAGE 20 MPG FUEL EFFICIENCY, WITH A CLASS
DRIVING AVERAGE OF 150 MILES PER PERSON, WE ADDED AN AVERAGE OF 150 POUNDS OF GREENHOUSE GASES TO THE ATMOSPHERE IN ONE WEEK.

ALL TOGETHER, WE ALSO RODE THE BUS A TOTAL OF 2.5 MILES, BIKED 1 MILE, AND WALKED 38 MILES.

WEEK 2: 11 PEOPLE PARTICIPATING

TOTAL DRIVING FOR ONE WEEK: 1507 MILES
MILES EACH PERSON DROVE RANGED FROM 31 TO 380.

NEW AVERAGE: 137 MILES PER PERSON, 137 POUNDS OF GREENHOUSE GASES ADDED TO THE ATMOSPHERE.

WE ALSO RODE THE BUS A TOTAL OF 2.2 MILES, BIKED 4 MILES, WALKED 27 MILES, AND STAYED HOME.

OUR CLASS SAVED 13 POUNDS OF CARBON PER PERSON OR 143 POUNDS ALL TOGETHER IN ONE WEEK. IN ONE YEAR WE CAN SAVE 6,436 POUNDS, OVER THREE TONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES, FROM GOING INTO THE ATMOSPHERE AND CAUSING GLOBAL WARMING.
                            WE ROCK!!!

             COMPACT FLUORESCENT LIGHT BULBS

     
The light bulb you got today is a compact fluorescent light bulb, CFL. If you use it in a lamp that is on fairly often, you can save up to 300 pounds of carbon a year and lower your electric bill.  It is a 13/60 watt bulb, which means you can use it where you would use a 60-watt regular incandescent bulb. It will give out the same amount of light but less heat, so it will last 8 times longer and use less electricity than a regular light bulb.
  There are several limitations to using CFLs. Most of them can be used only in an open light fixture, like a floor lamp or a table lamp. You cannot put them into a closed light fixture on the ceiling or the wall. You cannot use them with a dimmer switch. Unless they are made especially for damp places, you cannot use them outdoors. They have mercury inside them, so when they burn out, you shouldn't throw them in the garbage. Instead, bring them to a lighting store or a home store like Jerry's where CFLs are sold.
   Your CFL is a gift from Christenson Electricians, 688-6121.

LETTER TO THE BUS COMPANY
                                                E.S.L. Department
                                                Lane Community College
                                                November 29, 2006                                                                                              
Planning Department
Lane Transit District...

Dear Mr. Mueller:
       We are students at Lane Community College Downtown Center who are studying English. We appreciate taking Lane Transit District buses to our classes.
    We would like to ask you please to change the evening bus schedule. Many of the E.S.L. students have a problem because they have to leave class early to take the bus. It would be very helpful if L.T.D. could have the buses leave at 8:55 or 9:00 PM. That would give all students a chance to stay to the end of class. It would also encourage students who drive now to begin taking the bus, which would save carbon emissions and slow global warming.
  We look forward to hearing from you.
    Thank you very much.
    Sincerely yours,
                       
everyone signed
Level 6 Combined Skills Class, E.S.L. Department               

NOVEMBER 29

     Students wrote answers to civics questions in class. Several of the answers are below.

  I have learned about global warming, how I can take care of global warming. Now I know that gas is bad for global warming. I will be careful when it is not necessity to use my car. I would like to be volunteer to explain to people about global warming.

    I learned that with so little effort I can change my habits, and bring my contribution to stop global warming.
  Saving energy, riding the bus, and planting trees are easy to accomplish and also important for future generations.

     I have learned so many things, and I am very surprised about some of the things that cause global warming, like the cows. It's amazing to know they contribute a lot to global warming. But the really incredible thing is that we can do simple things to improve our environment, like drive less, walk more, consume local food, save energy in our house. But the most important thing is to get information about the problem and make changes and share the information with the people and educate our family. Now it is my responsibility to teach my son to recycle, save energy, take care of the environment and to teach my husband to like to save gasoline and other tips to help our planet, because it is the only place to live.

REFLECTIONS ON CURRICULUM, NOVEMBER 13 - 29

I feel good about the bus survey and letter, because that includes the students in action to improve their community and the action is based on a problem that they observed in their own lives that is connected with global warming.
      Another time I would like to restructure the carbon race. It would be good to make the recording simpler and do it for one more week. Also, it might be better to identify a few simple things students could do to reduce carbon in transportation - maybe do the web search and then vote on a few activities that seemed the easiest - and all concentrate on those few things. The students' lives are already so busy and overloaded, and I would like them to have a sense of accomplishment about this, but that means designing something really simple to accomplish.
        I thought the pledges and the wards ceremony were really effective. We began with "An Inconvenient Truth," which is pretty unsettling, and ended by celebrating what we could do to make the situation better. Students worked with Language/Literacy Objectives #1, 3, 4 in Competency Area 43 of the Civics Objectives: Government and Law - Environment. We had worked with #2, 7, and 8 earlier in the term.
       

















       
                       
                 
BUS SURVEY * ENCUESTA DEL AUTOBUS

Dear students,
       We are planning to write a letter to Lane Transit District, asking them to change the schedule and make evening buses later so that ESL students can stay until the end of their classes. Please help us by filling out this survey. Circle the appropriate answers. Thank you!

Notes on results: 77 students filled out forms out of 120 registered for Monday/Wednesday classes and 70 for Tuesday/Thursday classes. Most students in Tuesday/Thursday classes also attend class on Moinday/Wednesday and filled out only one form. Others were absent. Many students take two bus route - to L.C.C. and home? Some didn't fill out question 2.

1. I take the bus to L.C.C.                                                     41 + 1 in summer
        Yo tomo el autobus al colegio de la comunidad (L.C.C.)

   I take the bus home from L.C.C. after class.                   50 + 1 in summer
        Yo tomo el autobus a casa desde LC.C. despues de clases.

   I do not take the bus for L.C.C. classes.                            21
      Yo no tomo el autobus para venir a la escuela.

2. The number of my bus route is #10: 1, #11: 2, #12: 5, #13: 4, #30: 9, #36: 1, #40: 1,          El numero de ruta del autobus que tomo es #41: 10, #43: 5, #50: 1, #51: 7, #52: 4,                                                              #64: 1, #66: 1, #67: 3, #73: 1, #95: 1. #96: 1
3. I take the bus for L.C.C. classes on these days:
       Yo tomo el autobus para venir a L.C.C. en

       Monday  50              Tuesday  18             Wednesday  53   Thursday  22
    Lunes                   Martes          Miercoles               Jueves

4. On my bus going home, how many of the passengers are usually E.S.L. students?
        De regreso a casa. cuantos pasajeros son estudiantes de ingles en el autobus?

less than 25%: 2  about 25%: 24         50%: 17                75% : 3           more than 75%: 3 
                      cerca de 25%           50%                    75%               mas de 75%
Bus routes with greatest perceived ESL numbers: #30: 25 - 75%, #41: 25 - 50%,
                                                         #51: 25 - 50%, #52: 50%

5. If the bus schedule changed so I could stay until the end of class, I would take the bus home from L.C.C. in the future.
        Si el horario de los autobuses cambiara yo podria quedarme hasta el final de la clase, yo tomare el autobus de regreso a casa despues mi clase en el futuro.

    Yes  11 who don't take it now           No   8                   Maybe  9
       Si      1 when it is not raining                No                       Possiblemente
                51 who already take the bus would continue