Tutor Tips - Page Two
This summer we will investigate the history and facts of everyday
items. First up is everybody’s favorite – Duct Tape. The
paragraphs below are copied from the Duct Tape Guys site -
Is it Duct or Duck? We don’t want you to be confused, so we will
explain. The first name for Duct Tape was DUCK. During World War II
the U.S. Military needed a waterproof tape to keep the moisture out of
ammunition cases. So, they enlisted the Johnson and Johnson Permacel
Division to manufacture the tape. Because it was waterproof, everyone
referred to it as "duck" tape (like water off a duck’s
back). Military personnel discovered that the tape was good for lots
more than keeping out water. They used it for Jeep repair, fixing
stuff on their guns, strapping equipment to their clothing... the list
After the War, the housing industry was booming and someone
discovered that the tape was great for joining the heating and air
conditioning ductwork. So, the color was changed from army green to
the silvery color we are familiar with today and people started to
refer to it as "duct tape" Therefore, either name is
Today, Duck® brand Tape is manufactured by Manco, a division of
Henkel. For the past decade, Duck® brand Tape has been the #1 brand
of duct tape in America. That means they've sold a LOT of rolls of
Duck Tape! How much is "a LOT?" Well, the following
statistics will give you an idea. They are based on annual Duck Tape
sales for the eight-year period ending December 31, 1998.
Linear feet of Duck Tape purchased per year: 1.56 billion feet
(Enough to scale Mt. Everest and return 26,870 times!)
Linear yards of Duck Tape purchased per year: 518.5 million yards
(Enough to wrap around the equator 12.3 times!)
Linear miles of Duck Tape purchased per year: 295,455 miles (Enough
to stretch to the moon 1.2 times!)
Pounds of Duck Tape purchased per year: 13.5 million pounds (Equal
to a fleet of 40 B-2 Stealth Bombers!)
Tons of Duck Tape purchased per year: 6,704 tons (Equal to a pack
of 58 blue whales - at 115 tons each!)
Duct Tape by Any Other Name (is just as sticky) As a public service
to Duct Tape Novices and Pros alike, here is a short list to acquaint
you with some other names given to "The Ultimate Power
Gaff Tape (also Gaffer’s Tape): This special grade of duct tape
(often colored black) was developed by the entertainment industry to
hold lighting equipment and cables in place and has a dull finish so
that it won’t reflect lights. Gaff Tape also has a specially
formulated, less tacky adhesive that won’t leave a residue when it
Rock and Roll Tape: Whether they can afford gaff tape or just good
old black duct tape, under appreciated rock and roll roadies keep the
music industry alive thanks to their love of the America’s favorite
100 MPH Tape: A name recognizable, no doubt, to U.S. Army Veterans.
200 MPH TAPE: Pit crews across the nation’s auto-racing circuit
know that duct tape holds even when you’re going over 200 M.P.H. The
nickname was so common, "Duck" brand duct tape manufacturer
Manco has even trademarked it! 1,000 M.P.H. tape:
The U.S. Navy uses duct tape to repair Radomes (A radome (not 'Radom')
is a dome that fits over a radar antenna. On an airplane, that's
usually the nose cone. It has to be transparent to the radar waves.
Any repairs must be radar-transparent, too.) on fighter aircraft.
Since the planes fly so darn fast, they call it "thousand mile an
Missile Tape: The Aerospace industry, according to a Martin
Marietta worker, used a green duct tape that they secured and routed
wiring and cables on test missiles. They called this green duct tape
1,000 Mile tape: Norman Vaughn, arctic explorer for whom Antarctica’s
Mount Vaughn was named, puts it on his dog sled runners to prevent ice
build-up and says it lasts 1,000 miles. He is also the one who
recommends sleeping with the tape to keep the adhesive pliable in cold
Canoeists’ Companion: Very few canoeists would be caught without
a roll of duct tape. Why? Hit a rock, rip open the hull, you’re done
canoeing unless you have duct tape along!
Wisconsin Pewter on a Roll: Any Packer fan will tell you what’s
really keeping that cheese on their heads: duct tape. Minnesota (or,
insert your own rust-inducing state here)
Chrome: In the land of lakes, snow, road salt, and rusty cars, they
use duct tape a lot more often than they visit the auto body shop.
Hikers’ Helper: Along with a good sleeping bag, a Swiss Army
knife, and dry matches, duct tape makes sure outdoors enthusiasts are
prepared for anything.
Jesus Tape: In Finland and Sweden, some folks (we are told) refer
to duct tape as "Jesus Tape."
Plastic Surgeon on Roll: Pulls skin tight, lifts and separates—we
all look better with a little bit of duct tape.
First Aid Kit on a Roll: A great substitute for splints, bandages,
tourniquets, sutures, etc.
Call it what you will, we still call it, "The Ultimate Power
Tool!" May the tape be with you!
---Jim and Tim, the Duct Tape Guys
Copied from: http://www.octanecreative
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In anticipation of a long, hot summer and longer sleepless nights,
I purchased an air conditioner last week. The tutor tip this week
gives a link to reading energy efficiency labels and explains the
history of the air conditioner. At times, the air conditioning history
gets a little technical, but the discovery process is interesting to
discuss and think about. Have your students ever had flashes of
insight to solve problems? If so, what ideas have they come up with?
Part of my decision making process included reviewing the energy
usage labels of air conditioners. I chose the air conditioner that was
the most energy efficient because:
1. High-efficiency room air conditioners save money on your
2. High-efficiency room air conditioners result in fewer
environmentally harmful emissions.
An average air conditioned home consumes more than 2000
kilowatt-hours of electricity per year for cooling, causing about
3,500 pounds of carbon dioxide and 31 pounds of sulfur dioxide to be
emitted by the power plant. At average electricity prices, that costs
about $150. A high-efficiency A/C unit can reduce energy consumption
(and environmental emissions) by 20% to 50%. The most efficient air
conditioners on the market are up to 70% more efficient than the
current average room air conditioner.
Energy Guide labels show the estimated yearly electricity
consumption to operate the product along with a scale for comparison
among similar products. The comparison scale shows the least and most
energy used by comparable models. Yikes! I looked long and hard for a
good source that explained the energy usage labels, and this was the
best I could come up with.
Go to http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/consumer_information/energyguide.html
to view an energy usage label.
The Father of Cool
By Mary Bellis http://inventors.about.com/mbiopage.htm
"I fish only for edible fish, and hunt only for edible game
even in the laboratory." - Willis Haviland Carrier on being
In 1902, only one year after Willis Haviland Carrier graduated from
Cornell University with a Masters in Engineering, the first air
(temperature and humidity) conditioning was in operation, making one
Brooklyn printing plant owner very happy. Fluctuations in heat and
humidity in his plant had caused the dimensions of the printing paper
to keep altering slightly, enough to ensure a misalignment of the
colored inks. The new air conditioning machine created a stable
environment and aligned four-color printing became possible. All
thanks to the new employee at the Buffalo Forge Company, who started
on a salary of only $10.00 per week.
The 'Apparatus for Treating Air' (U.S. Pat# 808897) granted in
1906, was the first of several patents awarded to Willis Carrier. The
recognized 'father of air conditioning' is Carrier, but the term 'air
conditioning' actually originated with textile engineer, Stuart H.
Cramer. Cramer used the phrase 'air conditioning' in a 1906 patent
claim filed for a device that added water vapor to the air in textile
plants - to condition the yarn.
In 1911, Carrier disclosed his basic Rational Psychrometric
Formulae to the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers. The formula
still stands today as the basis in all fundamental calculations for
the air conditioning industry. Carrier said he received his 'flash of
genius' while waiting for a train. It was a foggy night and he was
going over in his mind the problem of temperature and humidity
control. By the time the train arrived, Carrier had an understanding
of the relationship between temperature, humidity and dew point.
Industries flourished with the new ability to control the
temperature and humidity levels during and after production. Film,
tobacco, processed meats, medical capsules, textiles and other
products acquired significant improvements in quality with air
conditioning. Willis and six other engineers formed the Carrier
Engineering Corporation in 1915 with a starting capital of $35,000
(1995 sales topped $5 billion). The company was dedicated to improving
air conditioning technology.
In 1921, Carrier patented the centrifugal refrigeration machine.
The 'centrifugal chiller' was the first practical method of air
conditioning large spaces. Previous refrigeration machines used
reciprocating-compressors (piston-driven) to pump refrigerant (often
toxic and flammable ammonia) throughout the system. Carrier designed a
centrifugal-compressor similar to the centrifugal turning-blades of a
water pump. The result was a safer and more efficient chiller.
Cooling for human comfort, rather than industrial need, began in
1924, noted by the three Carrier centrifugal chillers installed in the
J.L. Hudson Department Store in Detroit, Michigan. Shoppers flocked to
the 'air conditioned' store. The boom in human cooling spread from the
department stores to the movie theaters, most notably the Rivoli
theater in New York, whose summer film business skyrocketed when it
heavily advertised the cool comfort. Demand increased for smaller
units and the Carrier Company obliged.
In 1928, Carrier developed the first residential 'Weathermaker', an
air conditioner for private home use. The Great Depression and then
WW2 slowed the non-industrial use of air conditioning. After the war,
consumer sales started to grow again. The rest is history, cool and
Special thanks given to the Carrier
Willis Haviland Carrier did not invent the very first system to
cool an interior structure, however, his system was the first truly
successful and safe one that started the science of modern air
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It’s baseball season!
Baseball is one of my favorite sports – its one of the only
things I can think of where time doesn’t count. Baseball is played
until the game is over – time just isn’t important. Below is an
interesting explanation of how a pitcher throws a curve ball, which is
something I have always wondered about.
In baseball, how does a pitcher throw a curveball?
A successful major league batter gets a hit only 30 percent of the
time he comes to bat. One of the ways pitchers lower these chances
even further is by throwing a curveball. A curveball is a pitch that
appears to be moving straight toward home plate but that is actually
moving down and to the right or left by several inches. Obviously, a
pitch that curves is going to be harder to hit than a fastball that is
moving straight. There are two basic factors involved in creating a
Any baseball pitch begins with how the pitcher grips the ball. To
throw a curveball, a pitcher must hold the baseball between his thumb
and his index and middle fingers, with the middle finger resting on
the baseball seam. When the pitcher comes through his motion to throw
the ball, he snaps his wrist downward as he releases the ball, which
gives the ball topspin. If the pitcher throws properly, the back of
his hand will be facing the batter at the end of the motion. The ball
will break down and away from a right-handed batter if thrown by a
right-handed pitcher. The spinning action created when the pitcher
releases the ball is the secret behind the curveball. This spinning
causes air to flow differently over the top of the ball than it does
under the ball. The top of the ball is spinning directly into air and
the bottom of the ball is spinning with the airflow. The air under the
ball is flowing faster than air on top of the ball creating less
pressure, which forces the ball to move down or curve. This imbalance
of force is called the Magnus Effect, named for physicist Gustav
Magnus, who discovered in 1852 that a spinning object traveling
through liquid is forced to move sideways. Adding to the air pressure
exerted on the ball are the 108 red stitches that hold the cover on
the ball. Because they are raised, the stitches increase the amount of
friction created as the air passes around the ball and places more air
pressure on top of the ball. A well-thrown curveball can move as much
as 17 inches either way. If you've ever seen a batter jump out of the
way of a baseball that ends up crossing over the plate, you've seen a
This Friday, June 21 is the
summer solstice. Read on to find out more about the summer solstice,
some interesting facts and an exercise that you can do in your own
neighborhood - even in rainly Oregon! Also, one of the facts (FAQ)
describes what happens in the Southern Hemisphere - so grab a globe
and talk about the countries in the Southern Hemisphere with your
student. Copied from: http://teacher.scholastic.com/researchtools/articlearchives/space/solstice.htm#faq
The Summer Solstice
You know it as the first day of summer. Others
refer to it as the longest day of the year. So, what makes this day
– the solstice – special? To understand, you'll need a
little background about the Sun and the Earth.
In the summer, days feel longer because the
Sun rises earlier in the morning and sets later at night. When the
North Pole of the Earth is tilted toward the Sun, we in the Northern
Hemisphere receive more sunlight and it's summer. As the Earth moves
in its orbit, the tilt of the North Pole changes. When it is tilted
away from the Sun, it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In between
we have autumn and spring.
The day that the Earth's North Pole is tilted
closest to the sun is called the summer solstice. This is the longest
day (most daylight hours) of the year for people living in the
Northern Hemisphere. It is also the day that the Sun reaches its
highest point in the sky. This year, the first day of summer – or
the summer solstice – is June 21, 2002.
The winter solstice, or the shortest day of the
year, happens when the Earth's North Pole is tilted farthest from the
In between, there are two times when the tilt of
the Earth is zero, meaning that the tilt is neither away from the Sun
nor toward the Sun. These are the vernal equinox – the first day of
spring – and the autumnal equinox – the first day of fall. Equinox
means "equal." During these times, the hours of daylight and
night are equal. Both are 12 hours long.
happens during the summer solstice if you live in the Southern
When the North Pole of the Earth is tilted toward
the Sun, the South Pole is tilted away from the Sun. So, when it's
summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it's winter in the Southern
Hemisphere. For people living in the Southern Hemisphere, winter is
approaching now and Christmas is a summer holiday!
does the tilt of the Earth have to do with the seasons?
When the North Pole of the Earth is tilted toward
the Sun, we receive more sunlight and the days are longer. In
addition, the Sun rises higher in the sky, so the sunlight is more
direct; that is, it comes down from above. This increases the amount
of light that a given area on the Earth receives. More sunlight means
more warmth, or summer.
When the North Pole is tilted away from the Sun,
the days are shorter and the Sun does not rise as high in the sky.
Less sunlight means less warmth, or winter.
are the hottest days after the first day of summer, and the coldest
days after the first day of winter?
Even though there is more sunlight in the summer,
it takes time to warm up the Earth and the atmosphere. This is just
like heating up food in the oven – it doesn't happen in a second! So
the heating and cooling effects from greater and lesser sunlight have
a delay of almost two months. Hey, it's a big planet!
the distance of the Earth from the Sun cause the seasons?
Many people think so, but this is not the main
reason. The Earth is closest to the Sun in late December, but this is
definitely not the warmest time of the year for people living in the
Northern Hemisphere! It has more to do with the direction of the tilt
of the Earth.
the Summer Solstice
Try this small experiment to observe how the Sun
reaches a higher point in the sky as the summer solstice approaches.
Just follow these steps:
today at 12 noon*, measure the length of a shadow cast by a fixed
object (like a flagpole).
noon tomorrow, measure the same shadow again.
to measure the shadow each day at noon (weather and weekend
interruptions are okay) for a couple of weeks.
your measurements the same each day or do they differ?
the shadow is shorter each day, does that mean that the Sun is higher
in the sky or lower?
sure to make your measurements carefully at the same time each day. 12
noon is best, but other times will work.
Firework Safety for the 4th of July
This week's tutor tip celebrates the 4th of July by explaining how to safely set off fireworks. Following label directions is near the top of every safely list, so if possible - buy a few small fireworks and read the labels together with your student. Remember that Fireworks are not toys and accidents related to their use can be serious!
Listed below are safety tips from the National Council on Fireworks Safety followed by a list of the types of fireworks. Another possible exercise is to draw the firework according to the description.
- A responsible adult should supervise all fireworks activities.
- Never give fireworks to young children.
- Always purchase fireworks from reliable sources.
- Follow label directions carefully.
- Never point or throw fireworks at another person.
- Use fireworks outdoors in a clear area away from buildings and vehicles.
- Never carry fireworks in your pocket or shoot them in metal or glass containers.
- Light them one at a time then move back quickly.
- Don't experiment with homemade fireworks.
- Observe local laws and use common sense.
- Sparklers, fountains and other items that many states allow for use by consumers are not
appropriate when a large crowd is present.
- If attending a community display, leave your own fireworks at home -- there will be plenty of excitement provided by the display.
Types of Fireworks
By Amy Schamburek www.20ishparents.com
Battle in the Clouds
Shells that explode in a series of loud bangs, giving the impression of a battle.
Small, usually cylindrically shaped explosives strung together that explode on the ground in sharp bangs.
Canisters fired out of a mortar that explode in flowery star bursts.
A cluster of rockets that spin a disk up and off a center pole and into the air like a flying saucer.
Powerful, round red firecracker that is outlawed in the United States.
Cone-shaped cylinder attached to a long stick that soars high into the air when lift.
Tubes stuck into the ground that when lit send stars into the air; so called because the Romans supposedly featured them at carnivals.
Wooden contraptions set with lances that when illuminated form the outline of a person or scene in colored fire.
Set pieces that revolve in different kaleidoscopic color combinations.
A narrow steel wire that when lit sends out a shower of fine gold sparks.
Copied from www.fabulousfoods.com/holidays/4th/fireworktypes.html
DO WHEN HEAT WAVES STRIKE
- Increase Your Intake
of Non-Alcoholic, Non-Carbonated, Caffeine Free Beverages Such as
Water and Juice.
- Wear Clothing That is
Light in Color and Loose Fitting.
- Avoid The Outdoors
During Extreme Heat. Stay Out of the Sun.
- Stay in an
Air-Conditioned Environment if Possible. Shopping Malls Offer Relief
if Your Home is not Air-Conditioned.
- Check On The Elderly.
They are Especially Susceptible to Heat Related Illness.
- Eliminate Strenuous
Activity Such as Running, Biking and Lawn Care Work When it Heats
- Eat Less Foods That
Increase Metabolic Activity/Heat. Proteins are an Example. Increased
Metabolic Heat Increases Water Loss.
RELATED ILLNESSES AND THEIR SYMPTOMS
Redness and pain in the skin. In severe cases there is also swelling,
blisters, fever, and headaches.
HEAT CRAMPS - Heavy
sweating and painful spasms usually in the leg or abdomen muscles.
HEAT EXHAUSTION - The
person becomes weak and is sweating heavily. The skin is cold, pale and
clammy. The pulse becomes thready. Fainting and vomiting accompanies
High body temperature (106 degrees or higher) along with hot dry skin
and a rapid and strong pulse. Unconsciousness is possible
This is the opposite of
"wind chill". The Heat Index combines the effects of heat and
humidity. Warm temperatures feel even warmer when it is humid.
VALUES AND THEIR EFFECTS...ESPECIALLY FOR PEOPLE AT HIGHER RISK...
80 to 90 degrees - Fatigue possible with prolonged exposure and/or
90 to 105 degrees -
Sunstroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion possible with prolonged
exposure and or physical activity.
105 to 130 degrees -
Sunstroke, heat cramps or heat exhaustion likely, and heatstroke
possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.
130 degrees and higher -
Heatstroke/sunstroke highly likely with continued exposure.
copied from www.erh.noaa.gov/er/lwx/heat.htm
Happy Columbus Day
I just returned from a wonderful vacation trip. I traveled to Minnesota to visit my family. Whenever I return from a trip, I get the "wanderlust" for my next trip. This tutor tip describes the travels of a very famous traveler, who landed in South America on August 1, 1498.
I suggest you and your student use an atlas to explore the places mentioned in the text of this email. Use the index at the back of the atlas to locate the page number of the map where the city and country will be found. A good atlas will have population distribution maps, agricultural maps and language maps for you and your student to explore.
The following information is copied directly from www.historychannel.com
1498 Columbus lands in South America
Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sets foot on the American mainland for the first time, at the Paria Peninsula in present-day Venezuela. Thinking it an island, he christened it Isla Santa and claimed it for Spain.
Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, in 1451. Little is known of his early life, but he worked as a seaman and then a sailing entrepreneur. He became obsessed with the possibility of pioneering a western sea route to Cathay (China), India, and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia. At the time, Europeans knew no direct sea route to southern Asia, and the route via Egypt and the Red Sea was closed to Europeans by the Ottoman Empire, as were many land routes. Contrary to popular legend, educated Europeans of Columbus' day did believe that the world was round, as argued by St. Isidore in the seventh century. However, Columbus, and most others, underestimated the world's size, calculating that East Asia must lie approximately where North America sits on the globe (they did not yet know that the Pacific Ocean existed).
With only the Atlantic Ocean, he thought, lying between Europe and the riches of the East Indies, Columbus met with King John II of Portugal and tried to persuade him to back his "Enterprise of the Indies," as he called his plan. He was rebuffed and went to Spain, where King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella also rejected him at least twice. However, after the Spanish conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Granada in January 1492, the Spanish monarchs, flush with victory, agreed to support his voyage.
On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, with three small ships, the Santa María, the Pinta, and the Niña. On October 12, the expedition sighted land, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas, and went ashore the same day, claiming it for Spain. Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men. The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and "Indian" captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was given the title "admiral of the ocean sea," and a second expedition was promptly organized. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century.
Fitted out with a large fleet of 17 ships with 1,500 colonists aboard, Columbus set out from Cádiz in September 1493 on his second voyage to the New World. Landfall was made in the Lesser Antilles in November. Returning to Hispaniola, he found the men he left there slaughtered by the natives, and he founded a second colony. Sailing on, he explored Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and numerous smaller islands in the Caribbean. Columbus returned to Spain in June 1496 and was greeted less warmly, as the yield from the second voyage had fallen well short of its costs.
Isabella and Ferdinand, still greedy for the riches of the East, agreed to a smaller third voyage and instructed Columbus to find a strait to India. In May 1498, Columbus left Spain with six ships, three filled with colonists and three with provisions for the colony on Hispaniola. This time, he made landfall on Trinidad. He entered the Gulf of Paria in Venezuela and planted the Spanish flag in South America on August 1, 1498. He explored the Orinoco River of Venezuela and, given its scope, soon realized he had stumbled upon another continent. Columbus, a deeply religious man, decided after careful thought that Venezuela was the outer regions of the Garden of Eden.
Returning to Hispaniola, he found that conditions on the island had deteriorated under the rule of his brothers, Diego and Bartholomew. Columbus' efforts to restore order were marked by brutality, and his rule came to be deeply resented by both the colonists and the native Taino chiefs. In 1500, Spanish chief justice Francisco de Bobadilla arrived at Hispaniola, sent by Isabella and Ferdinand to investigate complaints, and Columbus and his brothers were sent back to Spain in chains.
He was immediately released upon his return, and Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance a fourth voyage, in which he was to search for the earthly paradise and the realms of gold said to lie nearby. He was also to continue looking for a passage to India. In May 1502, Columbus left Cádiz on his fourth and final voyage to the New World. After returning to Hispaniola, against his patrons' wishes, he explored the coast of Central America looking for a strait and for gold. Attempting to return to Hispaniola, his ships, in poor condition, had to be beached on Jamaica. Columbus and his men were marooned, but two of his captains succeed in canoeing the 450 miles to Hispaniola. Columbus was a castaway on Jamaica for a year before a rescue ship arrived.
In November 1504, Columbus returned to Spain. Queen Isabella, his chief patron, died less than three weeks later. Although Columbus enjoyed substantial revenue from Hispaniola gold during the last years of his life, he repeatedly attempted (unsuccessfully) to gain an audience with King Ferdinand, whom he felt owed him further redress. Columbus died in Valladolid on May 20, 1506, without realizing the great scope of his achievement: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.
copied directly from www.historychannel.com
Libra Horoscope Previous Day - Next Day
Wed Aug. 7, 2002 by Astrocenter.com
You may be attracted to an unorthodox approach to things today, dear Libra. New ideas that are cropping up are suddenly catching your attention. By opening your eyes wider than usual, you are able to see the benefit in those thoughts and ideas that are not so readily accepted by the people around you. Be the one with the open mind and heart, despite any opposition that you might encounter along this path.
My birthday is September 23 - so that makes me a Libra. Hmmm... guess I will try to be open minded and open hearted today, despite any opposition. Many of us read the daily horoscope in the newspaper or online without even a second thought of the history of Astrology. Many people take Astrology very seriously and many consider it a waste of time. Even though I am a scientist by training, I very much enjoy reading my horoscope. So, grab a newspaper and turn to the horoscope section and read your horoscope and your student's horoscope together.
A very brief history of Astrology follows. For a more detailed approach - visit - http://www.touregypt.net/astro/
Astrology has been around in one form or another for a very long time, even before mankind's earliest written records began. Around 5000 BC there was evidence of astrology and astronomy in stone circles in Great Britain and France.
The modern astrology of today began in Mesopotamia and Sumeria, where the celestial bodies and their relationship with crop planting were observed.
The seasons were important in their influence to bring about the best harvest, and the sun was worshipped for its effects on the land and crops. The phases of the moon were predicted to bring pattern and regularity, and a measure of time.
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