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POPULATION SURVEY 

Survey To Gain An Estimate Of The Population Of Potential New English Learners With Visual Limitations In The Seattle Area And Estimate Of How Many Are Currently Receiving Assistance In Learning English And Orientation To American Culture

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Contents

Introductory Remarks

Migrants To Washington State

Purpose Of The Survey

Survey Data Collection

What The Data Show

References

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs

Appendix III, Questionnaire

Introductory Remarks

The survey was prepared and administered and the report written by Sylvie Kashdan and Robby Barnes, core staff members of the Kaizen Program. We would like to thank the Glaser Foundation of Bellevue, Washington, which provided a grant to fund work on the survey.

For the purposes of this report, we use the term "immigrant" to designate a person who enters the United States to live with family members who are permanent residents, to find decently-paying employment or for other similar reasons. We use the term "refugee" to designate a person who seeks asylum in the U.S. on the grounds that she or he fears persecution in her or his country of origin.

Under the United Nations (UN) 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugees, an agreement signed and ratified by the U.S. government, a refugee is a person who "owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country."

The web site "ABC's of Immigration" is available at:

 http://www.immigrationforum.org/Facts/ABCsonimmigration.htm 

It summarizes U.S. Immigration And Naturalization definitions of status as follows:

"Who is an immigrant?

"According to U.S. law, an immigrant is a foreign-born individual who has been admitted to reside permanently in the United States as a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR).

"How do immigrants get admitted to permanently reside here? Typically, a foreign-born individual seeking to become an LPR can attain legal status in one of two ways:

"Through family-sponsored immigration, a U.S. citizen can sponsor his or her foreign-born spouse, parent (if the sponsor is over the age of 21), minor and adult married and unmarried children, and brothers and sisters. A Lawful Permanent Resident can sponsor her or his spouse, minor children, and adult unmarried children.

"Through employment-based immigration, a U.S. employer can sponsor an individual for a specific position where there is a demonstrated absence of U.S. workers."

"Who is a refugee?

"A person outside of the United States who seeks protection on the grounds that he or she fears persecution in his or her homeland. To attain refugee status, a person must prove that he or she has a 'well-founded fear of persecution' on the basis of at least one of five specifically-enumerated and internationally-recognized grounds. Those grounds include the person's 1. race, 2. religion, 3. membership in a social group, 4. political opinion, or 5. national origin. A person who has already entered the United States, and who fears persecution if sent back to his country, may apply for asylum here. Once granted asylum, the person is called an 'asylee.' Like a refugee, an asylum applicant must also prove that he has a 'well-founded fear of persecution' based on the same enumerated grounds. Both refugees and asylees may apply to become LPRs after one year."

More than a million people a year currently immigrate to the United States. The most recent Census statistics indicate that there are now 30 million foreign born people living here. More than 10 percent of the current U.S. population was born in another country. Although the numbers may seem large, there were times in the past when the proportion of foreign-born to native-born residents was higher. This was particularly true between 1870 and 1920, when approximately 15 percent of the population was born in other countries.

According to "Fast Facts on Today's Newcomers," from the National Immigration Forum 2000, "In 1998, the 'Top Ten' countries from which the U.S. received legal immigrants were: Mexico (131,575), China (36,884), India (36,482), Philippines (34,466), the Dominican Republic (20,387), Vietnam (17,649), Cuba (17,375), Jamaica (15,146), El Salvador (14,590), and Korea (14,268)."

"In 1998, the 'Top Ten' places from which refugees fled and were resettled in the U.S. were: Bosnia and Hercegovina, the Former Soviet Union, Vietnam, Somalia, Iran, Cuba, Liberia, Iraq, Sudan, and Burma." (See: http://www.immigrationforum.org/Facts/todaysnewcomers.htm)

The overwhelming majority of new-comers who settle here in the U.S. each year are immigrants. Between 70 and 80 percent are relatives of U.S. citizens who sponsor their applications for permission to immigrate. Citizens may only sponsor their spouses, unmarried children, parents (if the citizen is over 21 years), married children, and brothers and sisters (if the citizen is over 21 years). Lawful Permanent Residents (LPRs) may sponsor only their spouses and unmarried minor and adult children. Neither citizens nor LPRs may bring in more distant family members, such as aunts, uncles, and cousins.

About 100,000 refugees a year are admitted for humanitarian reasons. This means that they have been able to convince the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service that they have fled their home countries because of well-founded fear of persecution, discrimination or oppression.

The remainder of migrants to the U.S. come in hopes of improved economic opportunities.

Migrants To Washington State

According to the most recent U.S. Census estimates, 146,830 foreign immigrants came to Washington State between 1990 and 1999. The numbers of immigrants and refugees coming to Washington State from Asia, Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe have all increased over the past ten years. The SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER for August 6, 2001, reported that the Census Bureau found that "More foreign-born residents arrived in Washington state during the past decade than in the prior three decades combined... Currently, about one of every 10 Washington residents is foreign-born. And as many as half of those residents came to the state during the 1990s..." (See: "The 2000 Census: The tide of foreign-born now a flood, State's prosperity is a welcome change from war and poverty" By Phuong Cat Le and Lise Olsen, THE SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER, Monday, August 6, 2001: http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/local/34070_census06.shtml

"King County annually absorbs more immigrants, by far, than any other county in the state, Census figures show." But many of the newcomers do not settle in the City of Seattle, instead preferring "less expensive areas of the county such as Kent and Federal Way. And migration to King County accounts for only 46 percent of the state's total during the past 10 years." (See: "Steady stream of immigrants underscores July Fourth" By David Fisher, SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER, Tuesday, July 4, 2000: http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/local/indy04.shtml  

The 2000 Annual Growth Report published by King County noted that, "Immigration from other countries is an important component of King County population change... metropolitan area data from the US Immigration and Naturalization Service shows an average of 10,000 to 12,000 persons per year moving from other countries into the Puget Sound area... most of these immigrants and refugees reside in King County. The annual number of people settling in King County from other countries has remained constant at around 10,000 for several years, and a large proportion of King County's recent total growth has come from international migration as opposed to migration from other parts of the U.S." (See: http://www.metrokc.gov/exec/orpp/agr/agr00/ch1-00.pdf  page 2)

 

According to the Census Bureau, King County's total population in 2000 was 1,737,034. That represents a 15.2 percent increase over the 1,507,305 found by the Sensus Bureau in 1990. There were 140,611 residents who were born outside the United States in 1990. That represented 9.3 percent of the total King County population. Between 1990 and 2000, the number of King County residents who were not born in the United States increased by nearly 68,000, resulting in a total foreign-born population of nearly 208,611 in 2000. Residents of King County who were not born in the United States now constitute 12 percent of the total population. However, this data somewhat underestimates the actual population of new-comers because The net international migration data record only the arrival of immigrants from abroad--not those moving within the country, and the children born to immigrants after their arrival are not part of the immigrant settlement data--they become part of domestic population change. (see: http://www.fairus.org/html/msas/042wakin.htm )

 

David Fisher notes in his SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER article for Tuesday, July 4, 2000 ("Steady stream of immigrants underscores July Fourth"), that foreign-born residents to Washington State, "have come in successive waves as the world's trouble spots have heated and cooled. The 1980s saw a steady stream of Cambodians and Vietnamese. Persecuted religious groups began flowing in after the collapse of the old Soviet Union in the early 1990s. Last year brought a wave of Bosnians. This year, the bulk of refugees are African."

 

Purpose Of The Survey

We know from personal contacts, as well as from reports of friends and colleagues working in the English as a Second Language (ESL) and Visual Impairment fields that there are visually-impaired and blind people among the immigrants and refugees who have taken up residence in the Seattle area. Some have been handicapped their entire lives due to inherited medical conditions or acquired diseases; others have lost vision due to aging, accidents, malnutrition, war or individual victimization. Although such people are usually able to receive some medical care, local non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs are usually not prepared to give them the specialized support they need to become full participants in our society.

The problem is two-fold. Firstly, most instruction offered to immigrants and refugees who are learning English in the United States depends heavily on pictures, illustrations and other visual cues for introducing ideas and topics in the new language. But, visually-impaired and blind new English learners can rely on few or none of these visual cues. Because of this difficulty, many new English learners who are visually-impaired or blind find it extremely challenging, and even discouraging, to participate in programs designed primarily for fully-sighted immigrants and refugees. The staff in these programs also often have difficulty understanding the special needs of these students when they do enroll, particularly how to facilitate these students' acquisition of English by more fully and creatively utilizing their other senses. The staff in these programs are also not prepared to adapt the presentations to make them more accessible to visually-impaired or blind students.

Secondly, visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees also face challenges when they attempt to gain specialized adaptive skills by participating in programs designed for fluent English-speaking visually-impaired and blind people. These programs are heavily dependent on oral communication in English, while the new-comers generally lack English proficiency. They therefore often have difficulty participating in and benefiting from such programs, even though they may both desire and need the skills such programs offer. This is exacerbated by the fact that the staff in these programs are not generally prepared to serve the complex needs of immigrants and refugees, especially their needs to learn a new language and the ways of a very new culture.

In addition, immigrants and refugees with visual limitations frequently do not seek any help, because of their feeling that the hurtles are too much for them to surmount. This is especially true of older immigrants and refugees who have little or no prospect of or desire for employment, and may, in addition, believe that they are too old to learn a new Language and the ways of a new culture.

Visually-impaired and blind immigrant and refugee girls and women are also generally less likely than boys and men to seek out or take advantage of ESL and literacy services, because of their especially low status and low expectations, and their families' desires to keep them at home. As noted in WOMEN AND DISABILITY, prepared by Esther R. Boylan (from the Introduction), everywhere in the world, the forces that push disabled women to the margins of society are still strong, and many still do not have access to resources which could enable them to resist their negative stereotyping. Equality of opportunity and treatment for women has yet to be achieved in most societies. A woman with a physical disability faces a double handicap. Although some progress has been made in improving the status of women in general, disabled women have remained a largely ignored group. Life for women with disabilities in industrialized countries has improved significantly over the past 30 years, especially for younger disabled women, who usually receive some access to education and skills. However, in most countries outside of North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, handicapped girls and women still have very low status and are afforded very few opportunities for self-realization and fulfillment.

Jean E. Carlin also notes, in "Refugee and Immigrant Populations at Special Risk: Women, Children and the Elderly," that "Many of the refugees and immigrants to the United States in the past two decades have been non-white; hence, they are minorities in the United States...Most of these people had not experienced being minorities in their countries of origin." They are therefore frequently emotionally unprepared to understand and cope with the racial and other discrimination they may face in this country. (See "Refugee and Immigrant Populations at Special Risk: Women, Children and the Elderly," by Jean E. Carlin, in MENTAL HEALTH OF IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES, eds. Wayne Holzman and Thomas Bourneman)  

These factors, along with other challenges common to all immigrants and refugees, have contributed to making a large proportion of the visually-impaired and blind immigrant and refugee population under-served, and even invisible.

It is therefore not surprising that, currently, there are no definitive figures on how many people in the Seattle area face the complex challenges related to visual limitations combined with lack of knowledge of English and North American culture. In response to this lack, as part of the Kaizen Program's mission to assist such people, during 2000 and 2001 we undertook a survey to gain a reasonable approximation of the numbers of immigrants and refugees in the Seattle area with visual limitations.

Survey Data Collection

A specially focused survey questionnaire was prepared in 2000 and sent out in 2001 to 93 ophthalmologists and optometrists in the city of Seattle, drawn from a mailing list provided by the Washington Academy of Eye Physicians and Surgeons. We chose to pose our questions to these medical experts because we believe they can provide fairly reliable data on some aspects of the subject for a variety of reasons. First, ophthalmologists and optometrists are highly likely to have served visually-impaired new-comers. Visually-impaired and blind new-comers who are seeking public assistance will generally be referred to medical clinics where they will then be referred to specialists to verify medical conditions that might make them eligible for benefits. Moreover, many visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees seek out eye physicians soon after they arrive in the U.S. with the hope that the advanced state of medical knowledge in this country might mean that doctors here could help them gain improvements in vision. We also chose to query the ophthalmologists and optometrists because of their expertise in recognizing when patients have significant visual limitations as opposed to correctable visual difficulties.

Each ophthalmologist and optometrist was asked to respond to a series of questions concerning patients whom they served during the last year who have visual impairments and for whom English is a second language. (See Appendix III, Questionnaire For Ophthalmologists And Optometrists)  

Of the 93 ophthalmologists and optometrists, 20 responded, for a reasonable response rate of 22 percent. However, only fourteen were able to provide some specific information on patients with visual limitations for whom English is a second language. Some of those who gave specific numbers noted that the figures provided were estimates based on their personal memories because their offices do not keep precise records on patients' areas of origin or on language skills. The remaining 6 doctors indicated that their offices do not keep any records regarding patients' areas of origin, and their staff could not chance an estimate of how many people from non-English-speaking backgrounds were served during the last year.

All together, the ophthalmologists and optometrists who provided some information about the numbers of patients indicated that during the past year they have provided services to 656 immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses. Of these patients, 577 requested the assistance of interpreters, indicating some difficulties or lack of confidence in using English. And the responding ophthalmologists and optometrists and their staff felt that at least 500 demonstrated definite difficulty communicating in English.

Since these ophthalmologists and optometrists are professional evaluators of visual capacity, we can be fairly sure that the numbers given represent a significant local population of people with definite visual impairments or blindness for whom English is a second language. We can also be fairly certain that the numbers given do not represent very much double counting, because the survey only asked about patients seen over the past year. Although we cannot be sure of how many of these patients would actually desire or benefit from ESL programs especially adapted to deal with their needs for accessible methods and formats, based on the responses of these ophthalmologists and optometrists, we can be fairly confident that there is a sizeable population of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations in the Seattle area.

Another specially focused survey questionnaire was prepared in 2000 and sent out in 2001 to 4 non-medical programs that specifically serve visually-impaired and blind people, and to 11 large ESL educational programs that serve adults and families in the city of Seattle. The non-medical programs that specifically serve visually-impaired and blind people were chosen on the basis of our knowledge of such programs in the Seattle area. The ESL programs were chosen on the basis of our knowledge, supplemented with listings in the WASHINGTON LITERACY RESOURCE DIRECTORY (1999). These programs were chosen because of the central role they play in providing such services in this area. Because of the small number of programs to which this specially focused questionnaire was circulated, we were able to follow up with phone calls when no response was received or when more detailed responses were needed. While some programs never responded, even after receiving follow-up phone calls, we were able to get responses from enough programs to make the data meaningful.

Through this second questionnaire we hoped to gain an approximation of how many visually-impaired immigrants and refugees are currently receiving any ESL or literacy services.

We chose to pose our questions to non-medical programs that specifically serve visually-impaired and blind people because both medical personnel and social welfare agencies might refer visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees to these programs for needed services. Moreover, the data on visual impairment of clients provided by such programs is very likely to be fairly reliable because these programs utilize recognized standards for judging visual capacity. It is highly unlikely, therefore, that any of these programs would inappropriately designate non-native speakers as visually impaired.

We chose to query the ESL educational programs because they specifically serve immigrants and refugees who desire to learn English. Although these programs do not generally specialize in serving visually-impaired and blind students, they do provide important services that are of interest to very many immigrants and refugees, and therefore may very well have contact with new English learners with visual limitations. We also chose to pose our questions to ESL educational programs because of their expertise in recognizing levels of English proficiency as opposed to simply identifying speaking English with a non-native accent and some syntactical errors.

No questionnaires were distributed to elementary or high school programs. Determining the size of the population of elementary and high school age new English learners with visual limitations was not considered a high priority for this project because we believe that new English learners with visual limitations in the elementary and high schools probably have far greater opportunities for receiving specialized literacy and civic empowerment training than those outside the school system.

No questionnaires were distributed to state agencies because these agencies do not themselves provide educational services beyond training in adaptive skills, for those who have adequate English competency. Beyond this, they usually refer visually-impaired clients to the non-medical service providers and/or ESL educational programs which were surveyed for further services. Any data from such agencies would therefore very likely result in a large amount of double-counting.

Each non-medical program that specifically serves visually-impaired and blind people, and each ESL educational program was asked to respond to a series of questions concerning clients/students who they served during the last year who have visual impairments for whom English is a second language. (See Appendix IV, Questionnaire for Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs.)

We were able to obtain 10 responses out of the 15 survey questionnaires for non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs sent out, for a very good response rate of 66 percent. However, of the 10 non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs responding, only 8 were able to give some specific information on numbers of visually-impaired clients or students.

One of the non-medical programs which was unable to provide any data primarily serves older visually-impaired and blind people. The staff of this program indicated that up until now they have not been keeping any records regarding clients' areas of origin or need for learning English, and the staff could not chance an estimate of how many people from non-English-speaking backgrounds were served during the last year. This program's staff has not offered or referred clients to literacy or ESL education programs. However, the program's staff intends to begin keeping records of clients' areas of origin or need for learning English to better serve their clients with possible referrals in the future.

Another non-medical program queried, which provides some educational services for a range of handicapped people, including visually-impaired and blind people, reported that there were no second language learners with visual impairments receiving educational services from them.

However, two of the responding non-medical programs that provide services for visually-impaired and blind clients, were able to give specific numbers of second language learners with visual impairments receiving services from them during the past year. These programs reported having supported 10 visually-impaired immigrants or refugees in ESL or literacy education during the past year. We are confident that both of these programs accurately designated clients as being in both of the relevant categories, and therefore provided accurate data for this survey. But, only 2 of the 10 visually-impaired and blind clients were receiving support in full ESL classes. The other 8 were primarily given oral conversation practice. Both of these programs gave some assistance in learning to use voice-output screen readers and magnification programs with computers as part of developing accessible reading and writing skills. However, neither of these programs provided or supported direct instruction in braille literacy. Moreover, one of these programs has now discontinued all such educational support for its clients, although it will continue to have second-language visually-impaired and blind people in its work program. This means that 8 of the 10 new English learners with visual limitations will need to seek help elsewhere or forego such education.

One ESL program which is part of a larger organization serving immigrants and refugees indicated that the organization has served four non-English-speaking clients with visual limitations during the past year in the organization's job placement program, but none had attended the ESL classes.

Another ESL program which is part of a larger organization serving immigrants and refugees indicated that the program served one visually-impaired client during the past year in the organization's citizenship program, but none had attended the ESL classes.

Together, all of the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs which submitted some information about visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees indicated that during the past year they have provided services to 33 immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses. However, only 10 were reported as receiving services related to ESL or literacy education. Two-thirds of these people were not receiving any such services.

Together, all of the responding non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs reported seven visually-impaired non-native speakers as requesting communication in their native language, indicating definite difficulties or lack of confidence in communicating in English. At least 7 were also perceived by the staffs of the surveyed programs as having definite difficulties communicating in English. However, the number of those among the 33 visually-impaired and blind non-native English speakers who might desire and benefit from ESL and literacy educational services may very well be larger than the number reported as receiving such services during the past year. Larger numbers might express interest if they were offered an opportunity to receive ESL and literacy education more specifically tailored to their needs. Moreover, even new-English learners who have progressed beyond the most basic level might very well desire and benefit from such specialized assistance. For example, to our knowledge, among the 33 reported in this survey, there are 3 current or past Kaizen Program students who are now intermediate new English learners, who may not be perceived as having a great deal of difficulty communicating in English, but who do actually desire and benefit from ESL and literacy educational services. (Note: the Kaizen Program did not submit information for this survey in order to minimize double-counting.)

Since the surveyed non-medical programs that specifically serve visually-impaired and blind people utilize recognized standards for judging visual capacity, we can be fairly sure that none of them have inappropriately classified and over-counted non-native speakers as visually impaired. Moreover, they have probably undercounted the numbers of non-native speakers they are actually serving because only two of these programs have kept track of clients' immigrant or refugee status, or offered support for or referrals to programs which provide any literacy or ESL education. The other 2 have not considered such services to be part of their mission.

Most of the ESL educational programs surveyed have probably also somewhat undercounted the numbers of visually-impaired or blind students they have actually served during the past year, because they did not specifically focus on serving this special needs population. Since the general population of immigrant and refugee students have many other pressing issues requiring assistance, and since these ESL educational programs are not well prepared to provide any specialized assistance to visually-impaired or blind students, they often understandably fail to keep records of the vision problems of students. Most often, when visually-impaired students appear, instructors informally agree on some minimal accommodations, such as allowing the students to participate in learning English only through listening and speaking activities. Moreover, many visually-impaired immigrants and refugees may enter these programs without informing the staff of their visual impairments because they are not aware that they could receive any special assistance or they do not feel comfortable asking for individualized assistance. Although many of these students probably drop out because of difficulties in following the instruction without any adaptations for accessibility, we have no way of knowing what proportion of those who drop out do so for such reasons.

Many other immigrants and refugees who are visually impaired or blind are unlikely to even seek out ESL or literacy education services, because they often do not believe that they can benefit from them, or they feel uncomfortable exposing themselves to the expected scorn and discrimination of fully sighted new English learners from their countries of origin or elsewhere. This is most likely the case with older men and women over the age of 65 and with women of all ages.

Nevertheless, we are certain that the numbers given by the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs do also represent some double counting because some visually-impaired new English learners regularly avail themselves of the services of multiple programs, including the Kaizen Program. For example, the Kaizen staff is aware that at least 3 current or past Kaizen students have been reported as part of the total count. And, at least 6 current or past Kaizen students are not included in these cumulative figures, but have availed themselves of services from one or more of the surveyed non-medical programs in the past (two or more years ago). This means that the actual number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations who are presently receiving literacy or ESL education in the city of Seattle is probably close to the number reported in this survey.

 

What The Data Show

 

Although both of the specially focused questionnaires distributed contained questions related to patients' or clients'/students' countries of origin as well as region, the vast majority of respondents only indicated regions of origin. Our final report, therefore, only presents data for regions of origin.

Altogether, the ophthalmologists and optometrists who provided some information about the numbers of patients indicated that during the past year they have provided services to 656 immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments. Cumulatively, all of the non-medical service providers serving visually-impaired and blind people and the ESL educational programs which submitted some information about visually-impaired second-language speakers indicated that during the past year they have provided services to 33 immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments, and 10 of those people were receiving literacy and ESL educational services. From comparing the numbers given by the ophthalmologists and optometrists, and those given by the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs, it is evident that the number of immigrants or refugees with significant visual impairments reported as receiving any support in ESL or other literacy education during the past year was only equivalent to about 1.5 percent of the number of immigrants and refugees recognized by the ophthalmologists and optometrists as having significant vision impairments. Even if we only consider the 577 patients who the ophthalmologists and optometrists reported as having requested the assistance of interpreters, the number of immigrants or refugees with significant visual impairments reported as receiving any support in ESL or other literacy education during the past year was only equivalent to about 1.7 percent of that number. If we only consider the 500 who the doctors and their staffs reported as demonstrating definite difficulty communicating in English, the number of immigrants or refugees with significant visual impairments reported as receiving any support in ESL or other literacy education during the past year was only equivalent to about 2 percent of that number.

It should also be noted that of the 4 non-medical programs that specifically serve visually-impaired and blind people, only two attempted to support them in ESL or literacy education to any degree, and one has now (as of 2001) discontinued such services. It is therefore fairly clear that many immigrants and refugees in Seattle who are visually impaired or blind have received no literacy or ESL educational services whatsoever, and, most will probably not be receiving such services from the surveyed programs in the future.

It is highly probable that the majority of blind and visually-impaired new-comers to the United States have had little or no previous experience living independently with their disabilities. In most countries outside North America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, assistive services and educational opportunities for people with disabilities are minimal or nonexistent. Those who have been visually impaired since childhood often have had little or no education or adaptive skills training, and those who developed visual impairments during adulthood have usually not learned accessible methods for reading, writing or accomplishing other life tasks and goals. As a result, many immigrants and refugees with visual limitations have few independent living skills, little experience on their own, and very limited ideas of how to adapt to opportunities in the community. And even those who have been resourceful enough to develop strategies and independent living skills appropriate for survival and independent living in their countries of origin, cannot usually transfer the strategies, skills or experience to the challenges of living on their own, and adapting to new and unexpected opportunities in their new homeland. This makes it quite difficult for them to participate on an equal basis with sighted peers in programs designed to meet the needs of the broadest section of immigrants and refugees, or the general population of the Seattle area.

It is therefore noteworthy that the ophthalmologists and optometrists reported the three largest groups of immigrants and refugees of all ages with visual limitations receiving service during the past year came from Asia and the Pacific Islands, Central and South America, and Eastern Europe, all areas where their opportunities for education and adaptive skills training would have been generally poor. (See Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists, especially Tables 4 and 6.) The ophthalmologists and optometrists reported the largest group of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving service during the past year came from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Girls and women from that region constituted 20.1 percent of the total; boys and men constituted 14.8 percent of the total; both sexes together constituted 34.9 percent of the total reported. The second largest group receiving service from the ophthalmologists and optometrists during the past year came from Central and South America. Girls and women from that region constituted 12.0 percent of the total; boys and men constituted 10.1 percent of the total; both sexes together constituted 22.1 percent of the total reported. The third largest group of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving service from the ophthalmologists and optometrists during the past year came from Eastern Europe. Girls and women from that region constituted 11.8 percent of the total; boys and men constituted 7.9 percent of the total; both sexes together constituted 19.7 percent of the total reported. (See Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists, Tables 4, "Percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by region of origin, sex and age group.")

The non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs reported the three largest groups of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations of all ages receiving service during the past year came from Africa, Central and South America, Asia and the Pacific Islands, all areas with poor educational opportunities for handicapped people. It is encouraging to know that these immigrants and refugees have been receiving some necessary services. But, the actual numbers are so small as to leave little room for complacency. The non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs reported the largest number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving service during the past year came from Africa. Six girls and women from that region were reported, constituting 18.2 percent of the total; eighteen boys and men were reported, constituting 54.6 percent of the total; together, there were twenty-four visually-impaired people from Africa reported, constituting 72.8 percent of the total reported. The second largest number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving non-medical or ESL services during the past year came from Central and South America. Only one woman from that region was reported, constituting 3.0 percent of the total. Five boys and men were reported, constituting 15.2 percent of the total; together, there were six visually-impaired people from Central and South America reported, constituting 18.2 percent of the total reported. The third largest number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving non-medical or ESL services during the past year came from Asia and the Pacific islands. Only one woman from that region was reported, constituting 3.0 percent of the total; three boys and men were reported, constituting 6.1 percent of the total. Together, there were three visually-impaired people from Asia and the Pacific Islands constituting 9.1 percent of the total reported. (See Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs, Table 10, "Percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by region of origin, sex and age group.")

The ophthalmologists and optometrists, and the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs all reported that the smallest number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations of all ages receiving service during the past year came from Western Europe. The ophthalmologists and optometrists reported that girls and women from Western Europe constituted only 4.4 percent of the total of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations they had served during the past year. Boys and men from Western Europe constituted only 3.5 percent of the total. Both sexes together constituted only 7.9 percent of the total number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations the ophthalmologists and optometrists had served during the past year. The non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs reported the smallest number of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving service during the past year came from Western and Eastern Europe, both together representing 0 percent of the total they had served during the past year. (See Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists, Table 4, "Percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by region of origin, sex and age group" and Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs, Table 10, "Percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by region of origin, sex and age group.")

Although visually-impaired new-comers from Western Europe may be very likely to have adequate resources and skills to adapt to the North American context, those from Eastern Europe have very often had little or no special skills training, assistive services or educational opportunities in their countries of origin. Given the fact that the ophthalmologists and optometrists reported the third largest number of immigrants and refugees of all ages with visual limitations receiving service from them during the past year came from Eastern Europe, 129 individuals, immigrants and refugees from that region therefore represent a potentially highly needy and under-served population.

The ophthalmologists and optometrists reported serving more immigrant and refugee girls and women than boys and men during the past year. Girls and women under 18 years of age constituted 11.1 percent of the total reported; women between the ages of 18 and 65 constituted 26.2 percent of the total; women over 65 years of age constituted 18.6 percent of the total reported. Together, visually-impaired or blind immigrant and refugee girls and women of all ages constituted 55.9 percent of the total reported by the ophthalmologists and optometrists. The largest number of women served by these ophthalmologists and optometrists were between the ages of 18 and 65. By contrast, the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs reported serving more boys and men than girls and women. There were two boys and young men under 18 years of age reported as receiving non-medical or ESL services, constituting 6.1 percent of the total; there were twenty-one men between 18 and 65 years of age reported, constituting 63.6 percent of the total; and there were two men over 65 years of age reported, constituting 6.1 percent of the total. together, there were twenty-five visually-impaired immigrant and refugee boys and men reported as receiving services from the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs, constituting 75.8 percent of the total receiving services. The largest number of men served by the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs were between 18 and 65 years of age. (See Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs, Table 7, "Number of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by age group and sex.")

There are good reasons to believe that the contrast between the large proportion of girls and women reported by the ophthalmologists and optometrists and the comparatively quite small proportion of girls and women reported by the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs as receiving services is not accidental or simply due to the preliminary nature of this survey. This contrast can be understood in terms of the cultural practices in the countries of origin of the visually-impaired immigrants and refugees. As noted in WOMEN AND DISABILITY prepared by Esther R. Boylan, in the poorer parts of the world, "Families in rural areas do not send even able-bodied girls to school once they attain puberty. Education and training are seen as investment in breadwinners, man is seen as a breadwinner and the woman's role is seen as wife and mother." Visually-impaired and blind girls and women are even more likely to be excluded from education and training opportunities. "Attitudes and ignorance are particularly virulent where blind women are concerned--no one would readily consider marrying off a blind girl or asking for her hand in marriage. Objects of false pity and mindless charity, blind women are often relegated to the lowest status in the community--they are isolated from society and confined to a corner of the house and live in obscurity, silent misery and total social and economic dependency." (see: WOMEN AND DISABILITY prepared by Esther R. Boylan).

In Asia there are currently some experimental vocational training and rehabilitation programs for blind girls and women, but as yet they only reach a very small proportion of those who might benefit from them. Dr Fatima Shah, founder and president of the Pakistan Association for the Blind, has noted that in an average Asian home, especially in rural areas, disabled girls and women are "just left to exist in a confined area of the house. Very few, if any, have the chance for any kind of education." (see: WOMEN AND DISABILITY prepared by Esther R. Boylan).

When visually-impaired girls and women come to the United States they usually retain their low status in their respective immigrant and refugee communities. Many are viewed as free lifetime babysitters and housekeepers. Some are viewed primarily as sources of welfare income. Some are physically and/or sexually abused. And most of them are discouraged from attempting to broaden their horizons by learning English or becoming actively involved in community activities outside their families in the new homeland. These girls and women often feel defeated by these attitudes of social and psychological stigmatization. They are overwhelmed by negative self-images of inferiority and uselessness, and lack any hope of improving their condition. Older women very often carry the additional burden of believing that the aging process has robbed them of the ability to learn new things and adapt to new situations.

It is highly probable that these cultural factors strongly contribute to the relatively low proportion of visually-impaired and blind immigrant and refugee women in programs that provide skills training, as well as in ESL or literacy programs. And, this contrast should alert us to the situation of all too many visually-impaired immigrant and refugee girls and women as largely under-served. (See Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs, Tables 7and 8, which show number and percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by age group and sex.)

More than 70 percent of immigrants are over the age of 18 when they arrive in the United States. Most are in the prime of their working lives. (See: Immigrants and the Economy, National Immigration Forum 2000, http://www.immigrationforum.org/Facts/economyfactsheet.htm

It is therefore not surprising that the ophthalmologists and optometrists responding to our questionnaire reported that immigrants and refugees with visual limitations between the ages of 18 and 65 constituted the largest group receiving service from them during the past year. Women in that age group were 26.2 percent of the total reported by the ophthalmologists and optometrists; men were 19.4 percent of the total; 45.6 percent of all immigrants and refugees with visual limitations reported by the ophthalmologists and optometrists were from that age group. (See Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists, Table 2, "Percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by age group and sex.") The non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs also reported that immigrants and refugees with visual limitations between the ages of 18 and 65 were the largest group receiving service during the past year. Women in that age group constituted 21.2 percent of the total of those served by the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs. Men constituted 63.6 percent of the total. For the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs, 84.8 percent of all immigrants and refugees with visual limitations reported as served were from that age group. (See Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs, Table 8, "Percentage of immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses -- by age group and sex.")

It is noteworthy that the ophthalmologists and optometrists reported the second largest group of immigrants and refugees with visual limitations receiving service from them during the past year were over 65 years of age. Women in that age group were 18.6 percent of the total; men were 13.7 percent of the total; both sexes in that age group constituted 32.3 percent of the total served. However, the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs reported immigrants and refugees with visual limitations over the age of 65 as the smallest group receiving service from them during the past year. They reported serving no older women, constituting 0 percent of the total. They reported serving two older men, constituting 6.1 percent of the total. Counting people of both sexes, there were only two visually-impaired immigrants or refugees over the age of 65 reported as receiving services by the non-medical service providers and ESL educational programs, constituting 6.1 percent of the total reported. Clearly, those over 65 are an under-served group. (Compare Appendix I, Table 1 and Appendix II, Table 7 for numbers; compare Appendix I, Table 2 and Appendix II, Table 8 for percentages.)

This contrast can be partly understood in terms of the very limited services and referrals offered to all visually-impaired and blind seniors in the Seattle area. It should also be understood in the context of the special challenges faced by all elderly immigrants and refugees. Jean E. Carlin notes a number of problems specific to elderly immigrants and refugees which are of importance in understanding the stresses faced by the visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees who are elderly:

* "Most elderly men and women have found adjusting to a new country and a new culture very difficult. Isolation from former friends because of distance and inability to use the telephone or a bus is a serious problem. The adult children of these elderly persons often are too busy trying to survive to be very much aware of the loneliness and isolation of the elderly."

* "Because language is a major barrier, elderly refugees and immigrants may have difficulty in making new friends in their neighborhoods, and thus they are unable to become socially involved in the new country. They are very lonely."

* "Some elderly refugees and immigrants speak English, but many do not and will not go to classes to learn English for fear of failure with the accompanying loss of face. Different cultures have different perceptions of age, and many refugees believe they are too old to learn. Some of them have had little or no prior school experience and cannot read their own languages. Others are too depressed and preoccupied to learn."

* "Staying home with nothing useful to do is very demoralizing, especially for elderly men who previously had jobs with some status. The elderly women can keep busy with housework, cooking and child-care for their adult children. But life becomes boring and lonely as everyone else in the family is progressing toward the future while the elderly are regressing and feeling unproductive."

* "Loss of family members and friends during their escapes leads to guilt feelings. Surviving when others did not creates survivor guilt. The elderly may become depressed and want to die."

* "Psychiatric practices may be completely unknown to these elderly people, and Western medical practices and Western medicines may be foreign and frightening to them. Even directions can be confusing."

* "Elderly people must face the probability of death in the near future. This is always difficult, but facing death far from the lands and spirits of one's ancestors (whom one hopes to join) is even more difficult. Some believe that spirits, far from their ancestors, may wander forever trying to find their homelands. This prospect may be very frightening to the elderly refugees."

* "The elderly are usually the ones who are the least-able to comprehend the new language and culture. Therefore, their adult children and grandchildren are not likely to seek their advice as they formerly did in their countries of origin. The elderly feel unneeded and unappreciated." (See: "Refugee and Immigrant Populations at Special Risk: Women, Children and the Elderly")

The encouragement and support of literacy and civic involvement are generally recognized as vitally important for all immigrants and refugees, in order to enhance their ability to fully participate in the life of our society. If visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees are not given adequate opportunities to become literate in appropriately accessible formats and develop the skills necessary for engaging in civic activities, then they are denied this possibility. Moreover, they are, in effect doubly handicapped, because the lack of such skills and resources create further disabilities, which can exacerbate the difficulties concomitant with any physical handicap.

Only if programs can improve the outreach to visually-impaired and blind immigrants and refugees, to assist them in acquiring the necessary specialized skills to learn English and become oriented to North American culture, will a larger proportion of them be able to escape from the category of helpless, dependent people who can only be a burden to others and objects of pity, and become active and respected members of our society.

References

 

WOMEN AND DISABILITY prepared by Esther R. Boylan, first published by Zed Books LTD, 57 Caledonian Road, London Ml 9BU, United Kingdom and 165 First Avenue, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey 07716, United States of America, in 1991. United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 1991

"Steady stream of immigrants underscores July Fourth" by David Fisher, SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER, SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER, Tuesday, July 4, 2000:

http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/local/indy04.shtml

"The 2000 Census: The tide of foreign-born now a flood, State's prosperity is a welcome change from war and poverty" By Phuong Cat Le and Lise Olsen, THE SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER, Monday, August 6, 2001: 

http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/local/34070_census06.shtml

National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, THE NEW AMERICANS: ECONOMIC, DEMOGRAPHIC, AND FISCAL EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION, National Academy Press (1997)

Immigrants and the Economy, National Immigration Forum (2000), available at: 

http://www.immigrationforum.org/Facts/economyfactsheet.htm

ABC's of Immigration, available at: 

http://www.immigrationforum.org/Facts/ABCsonimmigration.htm

WASHINGTON LITERACY RESOURCE DIRECTORY, compiled by Washington Literacy (1999).

"Refugee and Immigrant Populations at Special Risk: Women, Children and the Elderly," by Jean E. Carlin, in MENTAL HEALTH OF IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES, eds. Wayne Holzman and Thomas Bourneman

 

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

(Tables 1 through 6)

 

Table 1: Number Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Age Group And Sex.

Table Column Headings: Sex; Age Group; Number Of Men & Boys; Number Of Women & Girls; Total Number

Age Group: Under 18; Sex: Number Of Men And Boys: 72; Number Of Women And Girls: 73; Total Number: 145

Age Group: 18 To 65; Sex: Number Of Men: 127; Number Of Women: 172; Total Number: 299

Age Group: Over 65; Sex: Number Of Men: 90; Number Of Women: 122; Total Number: 212

All Ages: Sex: Number Of Men And Boys: 289; Number Of Women And Girls: 367; Number Of Both Sexes: 656

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

(Tables 1 through 6)

Table 2: Percentage Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Age Group And Sex.

Table Column Headings: Age Group; Sex; Percentage Of Men & Boys; Percentage Of Women & Girls; Total Percentage

Age Group: Under 18; Percentage Of Men And Boys: 11.0; Percentage Of Women And Girls: 11.1; Total Percentage: 22.1

Age Group: 18 To 65; Percentage Of Men: 19.4; Percentage Of Women: 26.2; Total Percentage: 45.6

Age Group: Over 65; Percentage Of Men: 13.7; Percentage Of Women: 18.6; Total Percentage: 32.3

All Ages: Percentage Of Men and Boys: 44.1; Percentage Of Women and Girls: 55.9; Percentage Of Both Sexes: 100.0

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

(Tables 1 through 6)

Table 3: Number Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Region, Sex And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Region Of Origin; Sex; Age Group; Number Under 18; Number 18 To 65; Number Over 65; Total Number

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 15; Number 18 To 65: 19; Number Over 65: 17; Total Number: 51

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 15; Number 18 To 65: 17; Number Over 65: 18; Total Number: 50

Region Of Origin: Africa: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 30; Number 18 To 65: 36; Number Over 65: 35; Total Number: 101

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 32; Number 18 To 65: 34; Number Over 65: 31; Total Number: 97

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 33; Number 18 To 65: 58; Number Over 65: 41; Total Number: 132

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Both Sexes: Number Under 18: 65; Number 18 To 65: 92; Number Over 65: 72; Total Number: 229

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 15; Number 18 To 65: 25; Number Over 65: 12; Total Number: 52

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 15; Number 18 To 65: 38; Number Over 65: 24; Total Number: 77

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 30; Number 18 To 65: 63; Number Over 65: 36; Total Number: 129

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 5; Number 18 To 65: 10; Number Over 65: 8; Total Number: 23

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 5; Number 18 To 65: 14; Number Over 65: 10; Total Number: 29

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 10; Number 18 To 65: 24; Number Over 65: 18; Total Number: 52

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 5; Number 18 To 65: 39; Number Over 65: 22; Total Number: 66

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 5; Number 18 To 65: 45; Number Over 65: 29; Total Number: 79

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 10; Number 18 To 65: 84; Number Over 65: 51; Total Number: 145

All Regions: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 72; Number 18 To 65: 127; Number Over 65: 90; Total Number: 289

All Regions: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 73; Number 18 To 65: 172; Number Over 65: 122; Total Number: 367

All Regions: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 145; Number 18 To 65: 299; Number Over 65: 212; Total Number: 656

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

(Tables 1 through 6)

Table 4: Percentage Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Region Of Origin, Sex And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Region Of Origin; Sex; Age Group; Percentage Under 18; Percentage 18 To 65; Percentage Over 65; Total Percentage

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 2.3; Percentage 18 To 65: 2.9; Percentage Over 65: 2.6; Total Percentage: 7.8

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 2.3; Percentage 18 To 65: 2.6; Percentage Over 65: 2.7; Total Percentage: 7.6

Region Of Origin: Africa: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 4.6; Percentage 18 To 65: 5.5; Percentage Over 65: 5.3; Total Percentage: 15.4

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 4.9; Percentage 18 To 65: 5.2; Percentage Over 65: 4.7; Total Percentage: 14.8

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 5.0; Percentage 18 To 65: 8.8; Percentage Over 65: 6.3; Total Percentage: 20.1

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 9.9; Percentage 18 To 65: 14.0; Percentage Over 65: 11.0; Total Percentage: 34.9

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 2.3; Percentage 18 To 65: 3.8; Percentage Over 65: 1.8; Total Percentage: 7.9

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 2.3; Percentage 18 To 65: 5.8; Percentage Over 65: 3.7; Total Percentage: 11.7

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 4.6; Percentage 18 To 65: 9.6; Percentage Over 65: 5.5; Total Percentage: 19.6

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0.8; Percentage 18 To 65: 1.5; Percentage Over 65: 1.2; Total Percentage: 3.5

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0.8; Percentage 18 To 65: 2.1; Percentage Over 65: 1.5; Total Percentage: 4.4

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 1.6; Percentage 18 To 65: 3.6; Percentage Over 65: 2.7; Total Percentage: 7.9

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0.8; Percentage 18 To 65: 5.9; Percentage Over 65: 3.4; Total Percentage: 10.1

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0.8; Percentage 18 To 65: 6.9; Percentage Over 65: 4.4; Total Percentage: 12.0

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 1.6; Percentage 18 To 65: 12.8; Percentage Over 65: 7.8; Total Percentage: 22.1

All Regions: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 11.0; Percentage 18 To 65: 19.4; Percentage Over 65: 13.7; Total Percentage: 44.1

All Regions: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 11.1; Percentage 18 To 65: 26.2; Percentage Over 65: 18.6; Total Percentage: 55.9

All Regions: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 22.1; Percentage 18 To 65: 45.6; Percentage Over 65: 32.3; Total percentage: 100. 

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

(Tables 1 through 6)

Table 5: Number Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Sex, Region And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Sex; Age Group; Region Of Origin: Number From Africa; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands; Number From Eastern Europe; Number From Western Europe; Number From Central and South America; Total Number

Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Under 18: Number From Africa: 15; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 32; Number From Eastern Europe: 15; Number From Western Europe: 5; Number From Central and South America: 5; Total Number: 72

Sex: Men: Age Group: 18 To 65: Number From Africa: 19; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 34; Number From Eastern Europe: 25; Number From Western Europe: 10; Number From Central and South America: 39; Total Number: 127

Sex: Men: Age Group: Over 65: Number From Africa: 17; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 31; Number From Eastern Europe: 12; Number From Western Europe: 8; Number From Central and South America: 22; Total Number: 90

Sex: Men & Boys: All Ages: Number From Africa: 51; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 97; Number From Eastern Europe: 52; Number From Western Europe: 23; Number From Central and South America: 66; Total Number: 289

Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Under 18: Number From Africa: 15; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 33; Number From Eastern Europe: 15; Number From Western Europe: 5; Number From Central and South America: 5; Total Number: 73

Sex: Women: Age Group: 18 To 65: Number From Africa: 17; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 58; Number From Eastern Europe: 38; Number From Western Europe: 14; Number From Central and South America: 45; Total Number: 172

Sex: Women: Age Group: Over 65: Number From Africa: 18; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 41; Number From Eastern Europe: 24; Number From Western Europe: 10; Number From Central and South America: 29; Total Number: 122

Sex: Women & Girls: All Ages: Number From Africa: 50; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 132; Number From Eastern Europe: 77; Number From Western Europe: 29; Number From Central and South America: 79; Total Number: 367

Grand Total Both Sexes: All Ages: Number From Africa: 101; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 229; Number From Eastern Europe: 129; Number From Western Europe: 52; Number From Central and South America: 145; Total Number: 656

Appendix I, Statistical Tables, Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

(Tables 1 through 6)

Table 6: Percentage Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Sex, Region And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Sex; Age Group; Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands; Percentage From Eastern Europe; Percentage From Western Europe; Percentage From Central and South America; Total Percentage

Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Under 18: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 2.3; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 4.9; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 2.3; Percentage From Western Europe: 0.8; Percentage From Central and South America: 0.8; Total Percentage: 11.0

Sex: Men: Age Group: 18 To 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 2.9; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 5.2; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 3.8; Percentage From Western Europe: 1.5; Percentage From Central and South America: 5.9; Total Percentage: 19.4

Sex: Men: Age Group: Over 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 2.6; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 4.7; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 1.8; Percentage From Western Europe: 1.2; Percentage From Central and South America: 3.4; Total Percentage: 13.7

Sex: Men & Boys: All Ages: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 7.8; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 14.8; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 7.9; Percentage From Western Europe: 3.5; Percentage From Central and South America: 10.1; Total Percentage: 44.1

Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Under 18 Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 2.3; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 5.0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 2.3; Percentage From Western Europe: 0.8; Percentage From Central and South America: 0.8; Total Percentage: 11.1

Sex: Women: Age Group: 18 To 65 Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 2.6; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 8.8; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 5.8; Percentage From Western Europe: 2.1; Percentage From Central and South America: 6.9; Total Percentage: 26.2

Sex: Women: Age Group: Over 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 2.7; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 6.3; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 3.7; Percentage From Western Europe: 1.5; Percentage From Central and South America: 4.4; Total Percentage: 18.6

Sex: Women & Girls: All Ages: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 7.6; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 20.1; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 11.7;Percentage From Western Europe: 4.4; Percentage From Central and South America: 12.0; Total Percentage: 55.9

Grand Total Both Sexes: All Ages: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 15.4; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 34.9; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 19.7; Percentage From Western Europe: 7.9; Percentage From Central and South America: 22.1; Total Percentage: 100.0

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-Medical Service Providers And ESL Educational Programs

(Tables 7 through 12)

Table 7: Number Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Age Group And Sex.

Table Column Headings: Age Group; Sex;  Number of Men & Boys; Number Of Women & Girls; Total Number

Age Group: Under 18: Sex:  Number of Men & Boys: 2; Number Of Women & Girls: 1; Total Number: 3;

Age Group: 18 To 65: Sex:  Number of Men: 21; Number Of Women: 7; Total Number: 28

Age Group: Over 65: Sex:  Number of Men: 2; Number Of Women: 0; Total Number: 2

All Ages: Sex:  Number of Men & Boys: 25; Number Of Women & Girls: 8; Total Number: 33

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-Medical Service Providers And ESL Educational Programs

(Tables 7 through 12) 

Table 8: Percentage Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Age Group And Sex.

Table Column Headings: Age Group; Sex; Percentage Of Men & Boys; Percentage Of Women & Girls; Total Percentage

Age Group: Under 18: Sex: Percentage Of Men & Boys: 6.1; Percentage Of Women & Girls: 3.0; Total Percentage: 9.1

Age Group: 18 To 65: Sex: Percentage Of Men: 63.6; Percentage Of Women: 21.2; Total Percentage: 84.8

Age Group: Over 65: Sex: Percentage Of Men: 6.1; Percentage Of Women: 0 Total Percentage: 6.1

All Ages Total: Sex: Percentage Of Men & Boys: 75.8; Percentage Of Women & Girls: 24.2; Total Percentage: 100.0

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-Medical Service Providers And ESL Educational Programs

(Tables 7 through 12)

Table 9: Number Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Region, Sex And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Region Of Origin; Sex; Age Group; Number Under 18; Number 18 To 65; Number Over 65; Total Number

Region Of Origin:  Africa: Sex:  Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 2; Number 18 To 65: 14; Number Over 65: 2; Number All Ages: 18

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex:  Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 1; Number 18 To 65: 5; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 6

Region Of Origin: Africa: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 3; Number 18 To 65: 19; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 24

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex:  Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 2; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 2

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex:  Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 1; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 1

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 3; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 3

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex:  Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 0; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex:  Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 0; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 0; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: SEX:  Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 0; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex:  Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 0; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 0; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex:  Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 5; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 5

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex:  Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 1; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 1

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 0; Number 18 To 65: 6; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 6

All Regions: Sex:  Men & Boys: Age Group: Number Under 18: 2; Number 18 To 65: 21; Number Over 65: 2; Number All Ages: 25

All Regions: Sex:  Women & Girls: Age Group: Number Under 18: 1; Number 18 To 65: 7; Number Over 65: 0; Number All Ages: 8

All Regions: Total Number Of Both Sexes: Age Group: Number Under 18: 3; Number 18 To 65: 28; Number Over 65: 2; Number All Ages: 33

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-Medical Service Providers And ESL Educational Programs

(Tables 7 through 12)

Table 10: Percentage Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Region Of Origin, Sex And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Region Of Origin; Sex; Age Group; Percentage Under 18; Percentage 18 To 65; Percentage Over 65; Total Percentage

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 6.1; Percentage 18 To 65: 42.4; Percentage Over 65: 6.1; Percentage All Ages: 54.6

Region Of Origin: Africa: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 3.0; Percentage 18 To 65: 15.2; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 18.2

Region Of Origin: Africa: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 9.1; Percentage 18 To 65: 57.6; Percentage Over 65: 6.1; Percentage All Ages: 72.8

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 6.1; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 6.1

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 3.0; Percentage Over 65: 0 Percentage All Ages: 3.0

Region Of Origin: Asia and Pacific Islands: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 9.1; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 9.1

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 65: 0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Eastern Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Western Europe: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 0

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 15.2; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 15.2

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 3.0; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 3.0

Region Of Origin: Central and South America: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 18.2; Percentage Over 65: 0; Percentage All Ages: 18.2

All Regions: Sex: Men & Boys: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 6.1; Percentage 18 To 65: 63.6; Percentage Over 65: 6.1; Percentage All Ages: 75.8

All Regions: Sex: Women & Girls: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 0; Percentage 18 To 65: 21.2; Percentage Over 65: 3.0; Percentage All Ages: 24.2

All Regions: Both Sexes: Age Group: Percentage Under 18: 6.1; Percentage 18 To 65: 84.8; Percentage Over 65: 9.1; Percentage All Ages: 100.0

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-Medical Service Providers And ESL Educational Programs

(Tables 7 through 12)

Table 11: Number Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Sex, Region And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Sex; Age Group; Region Of Origin: Number From Africa; Number From Asia And Pacific Islands; Number From Eastern Europe; Number From Western Europe; Number From Central and South America; Total Number

Sex:  Men And Boys: Age Group: Under 18: Number From Africa: 2; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 0; Total Number: 2

Sex:  Men: Age Group: 18 To 65: Number From Africa: 14; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 2; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 5; Total Number: 21

Sex:  Men: Age Group: Over 65: Number From Africa: 2; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 0; Total Number: 2

Sex:  Men And Boys: All Ages: Number From Africa: 18; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 2; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 5; Total Number: 25

Sex:  Women And Girls: Age Group: Under 18: Number From Africa: 1; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 0; Total Number: 1

Sex:  Women: Age Group: 18 To 65: Number From Africa: 5; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 1; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 1; Total Number: 7

Sex:  Women: Age Group: Over 65: Number From Africa: 0; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 0; Total Number: 0

Sex:  Women And Girls: All Ages: Number From Africa: 6; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 1; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 1; Total Number: 8

Both Sexes: All Ages: Number From Africa: 24; Number From Asia and Pacific Islands: 3; Number From Eastern Europe: 0; Number From Western Europe: 0; Number From Central and South America: 6; Total Number: 33

Appendix II, Statistical Tables, Non-Medical Service Providers And ESL Educational Programs

(Tables 7 through 12)

Table 12: Percentage Of Immigrants Or Refugees Who Have Significant Vision Impairments Which Are Not Simply Correctable By The Use Of Standard Optical Lenses -- By Sex, Region And Age Group.

Table Column Headings: Sex; Age Group; Region Of Origin; Percentage From Africa; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands; Percentage From Eastern Europe; Percentage From Western Europe; Percentage From Central and South America; Total Percentage

Sex: Men And Boys: Age Group: Under 18: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 6.1; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 0; Total Percentage: 6.1

Sex: Men: Age Group: 18 To 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 42.4; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 6.1; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 15.2; Total Percentage: 63.6

Sex: Men: Age Group: Over 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 6.1; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 0; Total Percentage: 6.1

Sex: Men And Boys: All Ages: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 54.6; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 6.1; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 15.2; Total Percentage: 75.8

Sex: Women And Girls: Age Group: Under 18: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 3.0; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 0; Total Percentage: 3.0

Sex: Women: Age Group: 18 To 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 15.2; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 3.0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 3.0; Total Percentage: 21.2

Sex: Women: Age Group: Over 65: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 0; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 0; Total Percentage: 0

Sex: Women And Girls: All Ages: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 18.2; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 3.0; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 3.0; Total Percentage: 24.2

Both Sexes: All Ages: Region Of Origin: Percentage From Africa: 72.8; Percentage From Asia and Pacific Islands: 9.1; Percentage From Eastern Europe: 0; Percentage From Western Europe: 0; Percentage From Central and South America: 18.2; Total Percentage: 100.0

 

Appendix III, Questionnaire

 

III-A, Questionnaire Introductory page (for both surveys)

People who are blind or visually impaired need adequate training in specialized adaptive skills to help them achieve personal fulfillment and success in school, on the job and in other areas of life. Imagine needing, in addition, to learn a new language and the ways of a very new culture. That is the situation of blind and visually impaired people who have been forced to leave their homelands because of war, famine, persecution and oppression. Kaizen is a new program that helps these immigrants and refugees who are struggling to build a new life in the United States. Kaizen helps them learn English and become familiar with our society and customs. It also helps them to utilize the specialized adaptive techniques and technologies they need to meet the challenges related to their visual impairments.

Who Can Kaizen Help?

The Kaizen Program can provide services to new English learners who have medically documented visual impairments which impede their visual access to important environmental cues and written or printed material, when these visual impairments are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses.

Kaizen does not exclude any person in any way from participation as student, instructor, staff, board member, volunteer assistant, or in any other role because of race, ethnic, political or social background. Kaizen welcomes and invites the participation of people from all backgrounds in furthering the purposes of the program.

Special Problems And Challenges

Because of their difficulty seeing pictures and other visual cues, many new English learners who are visually impaired or blind have difficulty participating in programs for fully-sighted immigrants and refugees. The staff in these programs also often have difficulty understanding their special needs. And, because of their lack of English proficiency, many new English learners have difficulty participating in programs which primarily serve fluent English-speaking blind and visually impaired people. We know from many individual accounts, that often such people never even attempt to get any help, because of their feeling that the hurtles are too difficult for them to surmount.

We Are Doing A Survey

Because of these factors, currently, no one really knows how many people in the Seattle Metropolitan area who are visually impaired or blind might need specialized assistance in learning English and orientation to American culture. As part of Kaizen's mission to assist such people, we are doing a survey to gain some idea of how many people in the Seattle Metropolitan area face these dual challenges.

We would very much appreciate it if you could help us by answering the following questions as completely as possible. We will be very grateful for your assistance.

III-B, Questionnaire For Ophthalmologists And Optometrists

1. During the past 12 months, have you provided services to immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses?

2. If yes, how many of them have requested the assistance of interpreters?

3. How many of them have had difficulty communicating in English?

4. How many are adult women between the ages of 18 and 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

5. How many are adult men between the ages of 18 and 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

6. How many are women over the age of 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

7. How many are men over the age of 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

8. How many are girls and young women under the age of 18 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

9. How many are boys and young men under the age of 18 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

10. Any additional comments:

11. Your name and address:

III-C, Questionnaire for Non-medical Service Providers and ESL Educational programs

1. Within the past 12 months have you provided services to immigrants or refugees who have significant vision impairments which are not simply correctable by the use of standard optical lenses? Yes No

2. If yes, how many of them request the assistance of interpreters?

3. How many of them have difficulty communicating in English?

4. How many are adult women between the ages of 18 and 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

5. How many are adult men between the ages of 18 and 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

6. How many are women over the age of 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

7. How many are men over the age of 65 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

8. How many are girls and young women under the age of 18 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

9. How many are boys and young men under the age of 18 from each area

From what countries of origin?

Africa?

Asia or Pacific Islands?

Eastern Europe?

Western Europe?

Central or South America?

10. Any additional comments:

11. Your name and address:

 

Kaizen Program

for New English Learners with Visual Limitations

810-A Hiawatha Place S., Seattle, WA 98144, U.S.A.

phone:  (206) 784-5619

email:  kaizen_esl@literacynet.org  

web:  http://www.nwlincs.org/kaizen/