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Karen K. Brees Ph.D.

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Volunteer Tutor Tips - Page Two

by Debra Sea

 

 

Duct Tape

This summer we will investigate the history and facts of everyday items. First up is everybody’s favorite – Duct Tape. The paragraphs below are copied from the Duct Tape Guys site -

http://www.octanecreative.com/ducttape/index.html

Is it Duct or Duck? We don’t want you to be confused, so we will explain. The first name for Duct Tape was DUCK. During World War II the U.S. Military needed a waterproof tape to keep the moisture out of ammunition cases. So, they enlisted the Johnson and Johnson Permacel Division to manufacture the tape. Because it was waterproof, everyone referred to it as "duck" tape (like water off a duck’s back). Military personnel discovered that the tape was good for lots more than keeping out water. They used it for Jeep repair, fixing stuff on their guns, strapping equipment to their clothing... the list is endless.

After the War, the housing industry was booming and someone discovered that the tape was great for joining the heating and air conditioning ductwork. So, the color was changed from army green to the silvery color we are familiar with today and people started to refer to it as "duct tape" Therefore, either name is appropriate.

Today, Duck® brand Tape is manufactured by Manco, a division of Henkel. For the past decade, Duck® brand Tape has been the #1 brand of duct tape in America. That means they've sold a LOT of rolls of Duck Tape! How much is "a LOT?" Well, the following statistics will give you an idea. They are based on annual Duck Tape sales for the eight-year period ending December 31, 1998.

Linear feet of Duck Tape purchased per year: 1.56 billion feet (Enough to scale Mt. Everest and return 26,870 times!)

Linear yards of Duck Tape purchased per year: 518.5 million yards (Enough to wrap around the equator 12.3 times!)

Linear miles of Duck Tape purchased per year: 295,455 miles (Enough to stretch to the moon 1.2 times!)

Pounds of Duck Tape purchased per year: 13.5 million pounds (Equal to a fleet of 40 B-2 Stealth Bombers!)

Tons of Duck Tape purchased per year: 6,704 tons (Equal to a pack of 58 blue whales - at 115 tons each!)

 

Duct Tape by Any Other Name (is just as sticky) As a public service to Duct Tape Novices and Pros alike, here is a short list to acquaint you with some other names given to "The Ultimate Power Tool."

Gaff Tape (also Gaffer’s Tape): This special grade of duct tape (often colored black) was developed by the entertainment industry to hold lighting equipment and cables in place and has a dull finish so that it won’t reflect lights. Gaff Tape also has a specially formulated, less tacky adhesive that won’t leave a residue when it is removed.

Rock and Roll Tape: Whether they can afford gaff tape or just good old black duct tape, under appreciated rock and roll roadies keep the music industry alive thanks to their love of the America’s favorite adhesive.

100 MPH Tape: A name recognizable, no doubt, to U.S. Army Veterans.

200 MPH TAPE: Pit crews across the nation’s auto-racing circuit know that duct tape holds even when you’re going over 200 M.P.H. The nickname was so common, "Duck" brand duct tape manufacturer Manco has even trademarked it! 1,000 M.P.H. tape:

The U.S. Navy uses duct tape to repair Radomes (A radome (not 'Radom') is a dome that fits over a radar antenna. On an airplane, that's usually the nose cone. It has to be transparent to the radar waves. Any repairs must be radar-transparent, too.) on fighter aircraft. Since the planes fly so darn fast, they call it "thousand mile an hour" tape.

Missile Tape: The Aerospace industry, according to a Martin Marietta worker, used a green duct tape that they secured and routed wiring and cables on test missiles. They called this green duct tape "missile tape".

1,000 Mile tape: Norman Vaughn, arctic explorer for whom Antarctica’s Mount Vaughn was named, puts it on his dog sled runners to prevent ice build-up and says it lasts 1,000 miles. He is also the one who recommends sleeping with the tape to keep the adhesive pliable in cold climates.

Canoeists’ Companion: Very few canoeists would be caught without a roll of duct tape. Why? Hit a rock, rip open the hull, you’re done canoeing unless you have duct tape along!

Wisconsin Pewter on a Roll: Any Packer fan will tell you what’s really keeping that cheese on their heads: duct tape. Minnesota (or, insert your own rust-inducing state here)

Chrome: In the land of lakes, snow, road salt, and rusty cars, they use duct tape a lot more often than they visit the auto body shop.

Hikers’ Helper: Along with a good sleeping bag, a Swiss Army knife, and dry matches, duct tape makes sure outdoors enthusiasts are prepared for anything.

Jesus Tape: In Finland and Sweden, some folks (we are told) refer to duct tape as "Jesus Tape."

Plastic Surgeon on Roll: Pulls skin tight, lifts and separates—we all look better with a little bit of duct tape.

First Aid Kit on a Roll: A great substitute for splints, bandages, tourniquets, sutures, etc.

Call it what you will, we still call it, "The Ultimate Power Tool!" May the tape be with you!

---Jim and Tim, the Duct Tape Guys

Copied from: http://www.octanecreative

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Air Conditioning

In anticipation of a long, hot summer and longer sleepless nights, I purchased an air conditioner last week. The tutor tip this week gives a link to reading energy efficiency labels and explains the history of the air conditioner. At times, the air conditioning history gets a little technical, but the discovery process is interesting to discuss and think about. Have your students ever had flashes of insight to solve problems? If so, what ideas have they come up with?

Part of my decision making process included reviewing the energy usage labels of air conditioners. I chose the air conditioner that was the most energy efficient because:

1. High-efficiency room air conditioners save money on your utility bills.

2. High-efficiency room air conditioners result in fewer environmentally harmful emissions.

An average air conditioned home consumes more than 2000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per year for cooling, causing about 3,500 pounds of carbon dioxide and 31 pounds of sulfur dioxide to be emitted by the power plant. At average electricity prices, that costs about $150. A high-efficiency A/C unit can reduce energy consumption (and environmental emissions) by 20% to 50%. The most efficient air conditioners on the market are up to 70% more efficient than the current average room air conditioner.

Energy Guide labels show the estimated yearly electricity consumption to operate the product along with a scale for comparison among similar products. The comparison scale shows the least and most energy used by comparable models. Yikes! I looked long and hard for a good source that explained the energy usage labels, and this was the best I could come up with.

Go to http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/consumer_information/energyguide.html to view an energy usage label.

The Father of Cool

By Mary Bellis http://inventors.about.com/mbiopage.htm

"I fish only for edible fish, and hunt only for edible game even in the laboratory." - Willis Haviland Carrier on being practical.

In 1902, only one year after Willis Haviland Carrier graduated from Cornell University with a Masters in Engineering, the first air (temperature and humidity) conditioning was in operation, making one Brooklyn printing plant owner very happy. Fluctuations in heat and humidity in his plant had caused the dimensions of the printing paper to keep altering slightly, enough to ensure a misalignment of the colored inks. The new air conditioning machine created a stable environment and aligned four-color printing became possible. All thanks to the new employee at the Buffalo Forge Company, who started on a salary of only $10.00 per week.

The 'Apparatus for Treating Air' (U.S. Pat# 808897) granted in 1906, was the first of several patents awarded to Willis Carrier. The recognized 'father of air conditioning' is Carrier, but the term 'air conditioning' actually originated with textile engineer, Stuart H. Cramer. Cramer used the phrase 'air conditioning' in a 1906 patent claim filed for a device that added water vapor to the air in textile plants - to condition the yarn.

In 1911, Carrier disclosed his basic Rational Psychrometric Formulae to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The formula still stands today as the basis in all fundamental calculations for the air conditioning industry. Carrier said he received his 'flash of genius' while waiting for a train. It was a foggy night and he was going over in his mind the problem of temperature and humidity control. By the time the train arrived, Carrier had an understanding of the relationship between temperature, humidity and dew point.

Industries flourished with the new ability to control the temperature and humidity levels during and after production. Film, tobacco, processed meats, medical capsules, textiles and other products acquired significant improvements in quality with air conditioning. Willis and six other engineers formed the Carrier Engineering Corporation in 1915 with a starting capital of $35,000 (1995 sales topped $5 billion). The company was dedicated to improving air conditioning technology.

In 1921, Carrier patented the centrifugal refrigeration machine. The 'centrifugal chiller' was the first practical method of air conditioning large spaces. Previous refrigeration machines used reciprocating-compressors (piston-driven) to pump refrigerant (often toxic and flammable ammonia) throughout the system. Carrier designed a centrifugal-compressor similar to the centrifugal turning-blades of a water pump. The result was a safer and more efficient chiller.

Cooling for human comfort, rather than industrial need, began in 1924, noted by the three Carrier centrifugal chillers installed in the J.L. Hudson Department Store in Detroit, Michigan. Shoppers flocked to the 'air conditioned' store. The boom in human cooling spread from the department stores to the movie theaters, most notably the Rivoli theater in New York, whose summer film business skyrocketed when it heavily advertised the cool comfort. Demand increased for smaller units and the Carrier Company obliged.

In 1928, Carrier developed the first residential 'Weathermaker', an air conditioner for private home use. The Great Depression and then WW2 slowed the non-industrial use of air conditioning. After the war, consumer sales started to grow again. The rest is history, cool and comfortable history.

Special thanks given to the Carrier Corporation

Willis Haviland Carrier did not invent the very first system to cool an interior structure, however, his system was the first truly successful and safe one that started the science of modern air conditioning.

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It’s baseball season!

Baseball is one of my favorite sports – its one of the only things I can think of where time doesn’t count. Baseball is played until the game is over – time just isn’t important. Below is an interesting explanation of how a pitcher throws a curve ball, which is something I have always wondered about.

Question

In baseball, how does a pitcher throw a curveball?

Answer

A successful major league batter gets a hit only 30 percent of the time he comes to bat. One of the ways pitchers lower these chances even further is by throwing a curveball. A curveball is a pitch that appears to be moving straight toward home plate but that is actually moving down and to the right or left by several inches. Obviously, a pitch that curves is going to be harder to hit than a fastball that is moving straight. There are two basic factors involved in creating a curveball:

-Proper grip

-Air resistance

Any baseball pitch begins with how the pitcher grips the ball. To throw a curveball, a pitcher must hold the baseball between his thumb and his index and middle fingers, with the middle finger resting on the baseball seam. When the pitcher comes through his motion to throw the ball, he snaps his wrist downward as he releases the ball, which gives the ball topspin. If the pitcher throws properly, the back of his hand will be facing the batter at the end of the motion. The ball will break down and away from a right-handed batter if thrown by a right-handed pitcher. The spinning action created when the pitcher releases the ball is the secret behind the curveball. This spinning causes air to flow differently over the top of the ball than it does under the ball. The top of the ball is spinning directly into air and the bottom of the ball is spinning with the airflow. The air under the ball is flowing faster than air on top of the ball creating less pressure, which forces the ball to move down or curve. This imbalance of force is called the Magnus Effect, named for physicist Gustav Magnus, who discovered in 1852 that a spinning object traveling through liquid is forced to move sideways. Adding to the air pressure exerted on the ball are the 108 red stitches that hold the cover on the ball. Because they are raised, the stitches increase the amount of friction created as the air passes around the ball and places more air pressure on top of the ball. A well-thrown curveball can move as much as 17 inches either way. If you've ever seen a batter jump out of the way of a baseball that ends up crossing over the plate, you've seen a good curveball.

 

This Friday, June 21 is the summer solstice. Read on to find out more about the summer solstice, some interesting facts and an exercise that you can do in your own neighborhood - even in rainly Oregon! Also, one of the facts (FAQ) describes what happens in the Southern Hemisphere - so grab a globe and talk about the countries in the Southern Hemisphere with your student. Copied from: http://teacher.scholastic.com/researchtools/articlearchives/space/solstice.htm#faq  

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The Summer Solstice

You know it as the first day of summer. Others refer to it as the longest day of the year. So, what makes this day – the solstice – special? To understand, you'll need a little background about the Sun and the Earth.

 In the summer, days feel longer because the Sun rises earlier in the morning and sets later at night. When the North Pole of the Earth is tilted toward the Sun, we in the Northern Hemisphere receive more sunlight and it's summer. As the Earth moves in its orbit, the tilt of the North Pole changes. When it is tilted away from the Sun, it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In between we have autumn and spring.

The day that the Earth's North Pole is tilted closest to the sun is called the summer solstice. This is the longest day (most daylight hours) of the year for people living in the Northern Hemisphere. It is also the day that the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky. This year, the first day of summer – or the summer solstice – is June 21, 2002.

The winter solstice, or the shortest day of the year, happens when the Earth's North Pole is tilted farthest from the Sun.

In between, there are two times when the tilt of the Earth is zero, meaning that the tilt is neither away from the Sun nor toward the Sun. These are the vernal equinox – the first day of spring – and the autumnal equinox – the first day of fall. Equinox means "equal." During these times, the hours of daylight and night are equal. Both are 12 hours long.

Solstice FAQs

1.       What happens during the summer solstice if you live in the Southern Hemisphere?

When the North Pole of the Earth is tilted toward the Sun, the South Pole is tilted away from the Sun. So, when it's summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it's winter in the Southern Hemisphere. For people living in the Southern Hemisphere, winter is approaching now and Christmas is a summer holiday!

2.       What does the tilt of the Earth have to do with the seasons?

When the North Pole of the Earth is tilted toward the Sun, we receive more sunlight and the days are longer. In addition, the Sun rises higher in the sky, so the sunlight is more direct; that is, it comes down from above. This increases the amount of light that a given area on the Earth receives. More sunlight means more warmth, or summer.

When the North Pole is tilted away from the Sun, the days are shorter and the Sun does not rise as high in the sky. Less sunlight means less warmth, or winter.

3.       Why are the hottest days after the first day of summer, and the coldest days after the first day of winter?

Even though there is more sunlight in the summer, it takes time to warm up the Earth and the atmosphere. This is just like heating up food in the oven – it doesn't happen in a second! So the heating and cooling effects from greater and lesser sunlight have a delay of almost two months. Hey, it's a big planet!

4.       Doesn't the distance of the Earth from the Sun cause the seasons?

Many people think so, but this is not the main reason. The Earth is closest to the Sun in late December, but this is definitely not the warmest time of the year for people living in the Northern Hemisphere! It has more to do with the direction of the tilt of the Earth.

Tracking the Summer Solstice

Try this small experiment to observe how the Sun reaches a higher point in the sky as the summer solstice approaches. Just follow these steps:

1.       Starting today at 12 noon*, measure the length of a shadow cast by a fixed object (like a flagpole).

2.       At noon tomorrow, measure the same shadow again.

3.       Continue to measure the shadow each day at noon (weather and weekend interruptions are okay) for a couple of weeks.

4.       Are your measurements the same each day or do they differ?

5.       If the shadow is shorter each day, does that mean that the Sun is higher in the sky or lower?

*Be sure to make your measurements carefully at the same time each day. 12 noon is best, but other times will work.  

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Firework Safety for the 4th of July

  • This week's tutor tip celebrates the 4th of July by explaining how to safely set off fireworks. Following label directions is near the top of every safely list, so if possible - buy a few small fireworks and read the labels together with your student. Remember that Fireworks are not toys and accidents related to their use can be serious! 

    Listed below are safety tips from the National Council on Fireworks Safety followed by a list of the types of fireworks. Another possible exercise is to draw the firework according to the description.

    Safety Tips

    - A responsible adult should supervise all fireworks activities. 
    - Never give fireworks to young children. 
    - Always purchase fireworks from reliable sources. 
    - Follow label directions carefully. 
    - Never point or throw fireworks at another person. 
    - Use fireworks outdoors in a clear area away from buildings and vehicles. 
    - Never carry fireworks in your pocket or shoot them in metal or glass containers. 
    - Light them one at a time then move back quickly. 
    - Don't experiment with homemade fireworks. 
    - Observe local laws and use common sense. 
    - Sparklers, fountains and other items that many states allow for use by consumers are not   appropriate when a large crowd is present. 
    - If attending a community display, leave your own fireworks at home -- there will be plenty of excitement provided by the display. 

    Types of Fireworks
    By Amy Schamburek www.20ishparents.com  

    Battle in the Clouds 
    Shells that explode in a series of loud bangs, giving the impression of a battle. 

    Firecrackers 
    Small, usually cylindrically shaped explosives strung together that explode on the ground in sharp bangs. 

    Shell 
    Canisters fired out of a mortar that explode in flowery star bursts. 

    Girandole 
    A cluster of rockets that spin a disk up and off a center pole and into the air like a flying saucer.

    Cherry Bomb 
    Powerful, round red firecracker that is outlawed in the United States.

    Rocket 
    Cone-shaped cylinder attached to a long stick that soars high into the air when lift. 

    Roman Candle 
    Tubes stuck into the ground that when lit send stars into the air; so called because the Romans supposedly featured them at carnivals. 

    Set Piece 
    Wooden contraptions set with lances that when illuminated form the outline of a person or scene in colored fire. 

    Catherine Wheel 
    Set pieces that revolve in different kaleidoscopic color combinations. 

    Sparkler 
    A narrow steel wire that when lit sends out a shower of fine gold sparks. 

    Copied from www.fabulousfoods.com/holidays/4th/fireworktypes.html 

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WHAT TO DO WHEN HEAT WAVES STRIKE

  • Increase Your Intake of Non-Alcoholic, Non-Carbonated, Caffeine Free Beverages Such as Water and Juice.
  • Wear Clothing That is Light in Color and Loose Fitting.
  • Avoid The Outdoors During Extreme Heat. Stay Out of the Sun.
  • Stay in an Air-Conditioned Environment if Possible. Shopping Malls Offer Relief if Your Home is not Air-Conditioned.
  • Check On The Elderly. They are Especially Susceptible to Heat Related Illness.
  • Eliminate Strenuous Activity Such as Running, Biking and Lawn Care Work When it Heats Up.
  • Eat Less Foods That Increase Metabolic Activity/Heat. Proteins are an Example. Increased Metabolic Heat Increases Water Loss.

HEAT RELATED ILLNESSES AND THEIR SYMPTOMS

SUNBURN - Redness and pain in the skin. In severe cases there is also swelling, blisters, fever, and headaches.

HEAT CRAMPS - Heavy sweating and painful spasms usually in the leg or abdomen muscles.

HEAT EXHAUSTION - The person becomes weak and is sweating heavily. The skin is cold, pale and clammy. The pulse becomes thready. Fainting and vomiting accompanies heat exhaustion.

HEATSTROKE/SUNSTROKE - High body temperature (106 degrees or higher) along with hot dry skin and a rapid and strong pulse. Unconsciousness is possible


THE HEAT INDEX

This is the opposite of "wind chill". The Heat Index combines the effects of heat and humidity. Warm temperatures feel even warmer when it is humid.

HEAT INDEX VALUES AND THEIR EFFECTS...ESPECIALLY FOR PEOPLE AT HIGHER RISK...

80 to 90 degrees - Fatigue possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.

90 to 105 degrees - Sunstroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion possible with prolonged exposure and or physical activity.

105 to 130 degrees - Sunstroke, heat cramps or heat exhaustion likely, and heatstroke possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.

130 degrees and higher - Heatstroke/sunstroke highly likely with continued exposure.

copied from www.erh.noaa.gov/er/lwx/heat.htm

 

Happy Columbus Day

I just returned from a wonderful vacation trip. I traveled to Minnesota to visit my family. Whenever I return from a trip, I get the "wanderlust" for my next trip. This tutor tip describes the travels of a very famous traveler, who landed in South America on August 1, 1498. 

I suggest you and your student use an atlas to explore the places mentioned in the text of this email. Use the index at the back of the atlas to locate the page number of the map where the city and country will be found. A good atlas will have population distribution maps, agricultural maps and language maps for you and your student to explore.

The following information is copied directly from www.historychannel.com


1498 Columbus lands in South America 

Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sets foot on the American mainland for the first time, at the Paria Peninsula in present-day Venezuela. Thinking it an island, he christened it Isla Santa and claimed it for Spain.

Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, in 1451. Little is known of his early life, but he worked as a seaman and then a sailing entrepreneur. He became obsessed with the possibility of pioneering a western sea route to Cathay (China), India, and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia. At the time, Europeans knew no direct sea route to southern Asia, and the route via Egypt and the Red Sea was closed to Europeans by the Ottoman Empire, as were many land routes. Contrary to popular legend, educated Europeans of Columbus' day did believe that the world was round, as argued by St. Isidore in the seventh century. However, Columbus, and most others, underestimated the world's size, calculating that East Asia must lie approximately where North America sits on the globe (they did not yet know that the Pacific Ocean existed).

With only the Atlantic Ocean, he thought, lying between Europe and the riches of the East Indies, Columbus met with King John II of Portugal and tried to persuade him to back his "Enterprise of the Indies," as he called his plan. He was rebuffed and went to Spain, where King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella also rejected him at least twice. However, after the Spanish conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Granada in January 1492, the Spanish monarchs, flush with victory, agreed to support his voyage.

On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, with three small ships, the Santa María, the Pinta, and the Niña. On October 12, the expedition sighted land, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas, and went ashore the same day, claiming it for Spain. Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men. The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and "Indian" captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was given the title "admiral of the ocean sea," and a second expedition was promptly organized. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century.

Fitted out with a large fleet of 17 ships with 1,500 colonists aboard, Columbus set out from Cádiz in September 1493 on his second voyage to the New World. Landfall was made in the Lesser Antilles in November. Returning to Hispaniola, he found the men he left there slaughtered by the natives, and he founded a second colony. Sailing on, he explored Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and numerous smaller islands in the Caribbean. Columbus returned to Spain in June 1496 and was greeted less warmly, as the yield from the second voyage had fallen well short of its costs.

Isabella and Ferdinand, still greedy for the riches of the East, agreed to a smaller third voyage and instructed Columbus to find a strait to India. In May 1498, Columbus left Spain with six ships, three filled with colonists and three with provisions for the colony on Hispaniola. This time, he made landfall on Trinidad. He entered the Gulf of Paria in Venezuela and planted the Spanish flag in South America on August 1, 1498. He explored the Orinoco River of Venezuela and, given its scope, soon realized he had stumbled upon another continent. Columbus, a deeply religious man, decided after careful thought that Venezuela was the outer regions of the Garden of Eden.

Returning to Hispaniola, he found that conditions on the island had deteriorated under the rule of his brothers, Diego and Bartholomew. Columbus' efforts to restore order were marked by brutality, and his rule came to be deeply resented by both the colonists and the native Taino chiefs. In 1500, Spanish chief justice Francisco de Bobadilla arrived at Hispaniola, sent by Isabella and Ferdinand to investigate complaints, and Columbus and his brothers were sent back to Spain in chains.

He was immediately released upon his return, and Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance a fourth voyage, in which he was to search for the earthly paradise and the realms of gold said to lie nearby. He was also to continue looking for a passage to India. In May 1502, Columbus left Cádiz on his fourth and final voyage to the New World. After returning to Hispaniola, against his patrons' wishes, he explored the coast of Central America looking for a strait and for gold. Attempting to return to Hispaniola, his ships, in poor condition, had to be beached on Jamaica. Columbus and his men were marooned, but two of his captains succeed in canoeing the 450 miles to Hispaniola. Columbus was a castaway on Jamaica for a year before a rescue ship arrived.

In November 1504, Columbus returned to Spain. Queen Isabella, his chief patron, died less than three weeks later. Although Columbus enjoyed substantial revenue from Hispaniola gold during the last years of his life, he repeatedly attempted (unsuccessfully) to gain an audience with King Ferdinand, whom he felt owed him further redress. Columbus died in Valladolid on May 20, 1506, without realizing the great scope of his achievement: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.


copied directly from www.historychannel.com


Horoscopes

Libra Horoscope Previous Day - Next Day 
Wed Aug. 7, 2002 by Astrocenter.com 
You may be attracted to an unorthodox approach to things today, dear Libra. New ideas that are cropping up are suddenly catching your attention. By opening your eyes wider than usual, you are able to see the benefit in those thoughts and ideas that are not so readily accepted by the people around you. Be the one with the open mind and heart, despite any opposition that you might encounter along this path.

from: http://astrology.yahoo.com/us/astrology/today/libradailyhoroscope.html



My birthday is September 23 - so that makes me a Libra. Hmmm... guess I will try to be open minded and open hearted today, despite any opposition. Many of us read the daily horoscope in the newspaper or online without even a second thought of the history of Astrology. Many people take Astrology very seriously and many consider it a waste of time. Even though I am a scientist by training, I very much enjoy reading my horoscope. So, grab a newspaper and turn to the horoscope section and read your horoscope and your student's horoscope together. 

A very brief history of Astrology follows. For a more detailed approach - visit - http://www.touregypt.net/astro/

Astrology has been around in one form or another for a very long time, even before mankind's earliest written records began. Around 5000 BC there was evidence of astrology and astronomy in stone circles in Great Britain and France.
The modern astrology of today began in Mesopotamia and Sumeria, where the celestial bodies and their relationship with crop planting were observed.

The seasons were important in their influence to bring about the best harvest, and the sun was worshipped for its effects on the land and crops. The phases of the moon were predicted to bring pattern and regularity, and a measure of time.

from http://www.annabelburton.com/astrology_history.html

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