NW LINCS Technology Issues In Adult basic Education Workshop
Digital Divide – What is it?
College Level Students
This article reviews the literature on computer uses in second language and foreign language learning from 1990 to 2000 inclusive.
Journal of Research on Technology in Education
In reading and
writing and on overall achievement tests, students with
technology-enhanced language learning out- performed those who were in a
traditional learning environment.
learning with computers. They found lab environment more relaxed than
learning in traditional classrooms.
participation, especially from those traditionally marginalized, including
women and shy students
Computer activities lead
to increased collaborative interaction among participants
showed excitement; overall improvement in language skills
The use of e-mail
encouraged greater communicative use of the second language.
Students still need
teacher s feedback and support
Positive attitudes of
students; significant gains in writing, but no significant differences in
More equal participation
in the electronic discussion
Gains in learning in
multimedia environment were reported
outperformed students who were enrolled in traditional classroom-based
difference between the two was found Chang & Smith (1991)
Greater amount of
language production and language functions and higher level of accuracy in
discourse of e-mail
of using e-mail over the paper-and-pencil dialogue journal in terms of
quantity of language, but no advantages in lexical and grammatical
reading is more effective in improving students’ second language
learning than conventional reading methods.
outperformed students in other ESL classes
Dramatic improvement in
Positive results and
interacting with real people in real situations. They needed feedback.
Great enthusiasm and
Miscellaneous Issues with Technology
software is not feasible for foreign language students, because it
recognizes only a low percentage of nonnative speaker utterances
Students with different
learning styles used different learning strategies and hypermedia can
accommodate students’ needs through its rich environments
increased significantly from pre-to post treatment, across all learning
style groups. Computer anxiety was reduced and attitudes increased
instruction was reported to be effective and in some cases more effective
than teacher instruction
Freedom to work at the
computer did not lead to gains in language learning
Research on Family Literacy
Caskey studied the differences in student and adult
learning when parents and students were taught to use the Internet
together and separately. Students seemed to learn the same in both
treatments, but parents seemed more comfortable with their and their
children's Internet use when they learned alongside their children.
Summative Research Report
Computers have been shown to be effective teaching and learning tools. In over a dozen summaries of the research on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), involving hundreds of studies with students of all ages, the following has been found (Kulik, 1994, p. 11).
· Students usually learn more when they receive computer-assisted instruction.
· Computer-assisted instruction is more efficient (reducing instructional time from one-quarter to one-third).
· The most effective type of computer-assisted instruction for elementary and high school students is computer tutoring, where the computer presents material to the student, evaluates the student's response, uses this information to determine what to present next, and keeps track of student progress.
· Students like their classes more when they receive computer-assisted instruction.
· Students like computers more when they receive computer-assisted instruction.
· However, students do not like the subject matter in their courses more when they receive computer-assisted instruction.
Results from a summary of the research focusing on adult learners are also positive. Computer-assisted instruction is effective with adults in non-traditional (non-school) settings such as adult basic education programs and job training programs. It is more effective than comparable non-computer-based instruction and is also more efficient. Computer-assisted instruction can be 30% faster than non-computer-based instruction (Kulik, Kulik, & Shwalb 1986).